Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/12581
Empirical and Modeling Approach for Environmental Indoor RF-EMF Assessment in Complex High-Node Density Scenarios: Public Shopping Malls Case Study
IEEE Access.2021;9 :46755-75
This work provides an intensive and comprehensive in-depth study from an empiricaland modeling approach of the environmental radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) radiationexposure in public shopping malls, as an example of an indoor high-node user density context awareenvironment, where multiple wireless communication systems coexist. For that purpose, current personalmobile communications (2G-5G FR 1) as well as Wi-Fi services (IEEE 802.11n/ac) have been preciselyanalyzed in order to provide clear RF-EMF assessment insight and to verify compliance with establishedregulation limits. In this sense, a complete measurements campaign has been performed in differentcountries, with frequency-selective exposimeters (PEMs), providing real empirical datasets for statisticalanalysis and allowing discussion and comparison regarding current health effects and safety issues betweensome of the most common RF-EMF exposure safety standards: ICNIRP 2020 (Spain), IEEE 2019 (Mexico)and a more restrictive regulation (Poland). In addition, environmental RF-EMF exposure assessmentsimulation results, in terms of spatial E-field characterization and Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF)probabilities, have been provided for challenging incremental high-node user dense scenarios in worst caseconditions, by means of a deterministic in-house 3D Ray-Launching (3D-RL) RF-EMF safety simulationtechnique, showing good agreement with the experimental measurements. Finally, discussion highlightingthe contribution and effects of the coexistence of multiple heterogenous networks and services for theenvironmental RF-EMF radiation exposure assessment has been included, showing that for all measuredresults and simulated cases, the obtained E-Field levels are well below the exposure limits established in theinternationally accepted standards and guidelines. In consequence, the obtained results and the presentedmethodology could become a starting point to stablish the RF-EMF assessment basis of future complexheterogeneous 5G FR 2 developments on the millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency range, where massivehigh-node user density networks are expected.
Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) | Personal exposimeter (PEM) | Electro-magnetic safety | E-field strength distribution | 3D ray launching (3D-RL) | 5G | High-node density | Publicshopping malls
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