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dc.contributor.authorCelaya-Echarri, Mikel
dc.contributor.authorAzpilicueta, Leyre
dc.contributor.authorRamos-Gonzalez, Maria Victoria 
dc.contributor.authorLopez-Iturri, Peio
dc.contributor.authorFalcone, Francisco
dc.identifier.citationIEEE Access.2021;9 :46755-75es_ES
dc.description.abstractThis work provides an intensive and comprehensive in-depth study from an empiricaland modeling approach of the environmental radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) radiationexposure in public shopping malls, as an example of an indoor high-node user density context awareenvironment, where multiple wireless communication systems coexist. For that purpose, current personalmobile communications (2G-5G FR 1) as well as Wi-Fi services (IEEE 802.11n/ac) have been preciselyanalyzed in order to provide clear RF-EMF assessment insight and to verify compliance with establishedregulation limits. In this sense, a complete measurements campaign has been performed in differentcountries, with frequency-selective exposimeters (PEMs), providing real empirical datasets for statisticalanalysis and allowing discussion and comparison regarding current health effects and safety issues betweensome of the most common RF-EMF exposure safety standards: ICNIRP 2020 (Spain), IEEE 2019 (Mexico)and a more restrictive regulation (Poland). In addition, environmental RF-EMF exposure assessmentsimulation results, in terms of spatial E-field characterization and Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF)probabilities, have been provided for challenging incremental high-node user dense scenarios in worst caseconditions, by means of a deterministic in-house 3D Ray-Launching (3D-RL) RF-EMF safety simulationtechnique, showing good agreement with the experimental measurements. Finally, discussion highlightingthe contribution and effects of the coexistence of multiple heterogenous networks and services for theenvironmental RF-EMF radiation exposure assessment has been included, showing that for all measuredresults and simulated cases, the obtained E-Field levels are well below the exposure limits established in theinternationally accepted standards and guidelines. In consequence, the obtained results and the presentedmethodology could become a starting point to stablish the RF-EMF assessment basis of future complexheterogeneous 5G FR 2 developments on the millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency range, where massivehigh-node user density networks are expected.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported in part by the School of Engineering and Sciences at Tecnologico de Monterrey, in part by the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades, Gobierno de España, Agencia Estatal de Investigación, Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional andUnión Europea (MCIU/AEI/FEDER,UE), under Grant RTI2018-095499-B-C31, and in part by the project PI19CIII/00056 – TMPY508/19, funding from Sub-Directorate-General for Research Assessment and Health Promotion in Spain (Instituto de Salud Carlos III).es_ES
dc.publisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) es_ES
dc.subjectRadiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF)es_ES
dc.subjectPersonal exposimeter (PEM)es_ES
dc.subjectElectro-magnetic safetyes_ES
dc.subjectE-field strength distributiones_ES
dc.subject3D ray launching (3D-RL)es_ES
dc.subjectHigh-node densityes_ES
dc.subjectPublicshopping mallses_ES
dc.titleEmpirical and Modeling Approach for Environmental Indoor RF-EMF Assessment in Complex High-Node Density Scenarios: Public Shopping Malls Case Studyes_ES
dc.typeresearch articlees_ES
dc.rights.licenseAtribución 4.0 Internacional*
dc.contributor.funderMinisterio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades (España) 
dc.contributor.funderTecnológico de Monterrey (México) 
dc.contributor.funderEuropean Regional Development Fund 
dc.contributor.funderAgencia Estatal de Investigación (España) 
dc.contributor.funderUnión Europea 
dc.contributor.funderInstituto de Salud Carlos III 
dc.identifier.journalIEEE Accesses_ES
dc.rights.accessRightsopen accesses_ES

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