Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/16492
Long-Term Exposure to Nitrate and Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water and Prostate Cancer: A Multicase-Control Study in Spain (MCC-Spain)
Donat-Vargas, Carolina | Kogevinas, Manolis | Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma | Perez-Gomez, Beatriz ISCIII | Llorca, Javier | Vanaclocha-Espí, Mercedes | Fernandez-Tardon, Guillermo | Costas, Laura | Aragonés, Nuria | Gómez-Acebo, Inés | Moreno, Victor | Pollan-Santamaria, Marina ISCIII | Villanueva, Cristina M
Environ Health Perspect. 2023 Mar;131(3):37004.
Background: Nitrate and trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water are widespread and are potential human carcinogens. Objective: We evaluated the association between drinking-water exposure to nitrate and THMs and prostate cancer. Methods: During the period 2008-2013, 697 hospital-based incident prostate cancer cases (97 aggressive tumors) and 927 population-based controls were recruited in Spain, providing information on residential histories and type of water consumed. Average nitrate and THMs levels in drinking water were linked with lifetime water consumption to calculate waterborne ingestion. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using mixed models with recruitment area as random effect. Effect modification by tumor grade (Gleason score), age, education, lifestyle, and dietary factors was explored. Results: Mean (±standard deviation) adult lifetime waterborne ingested nitrate (milligrams per day), brominated (Br)-THMs (micrograms per day), and chloroform (micrograms per day) were 11.5 (±9.0), 20.7 (±32.4), and 15.1 (±14.7) in controls. Waterborne ingested nitrate >13.8 vs. <5.5mg/d was associated with an OR of 1.74 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.54) overall, and 2.78 (95% CI: 1.23, 6.27) for tumors with Gleason scores ≥8. Associations were higher in the youngest and those with lower intakes of fiber, fruit/vegetables, and vitamin C. Waterborne ingested THMs were not associated with prostate cancer. Residential tap water levels of Br-THMs and chloroform showed, respectively, inverse and positive associations with prostate cancer. Conclusions: Findings suggest long-term waterborne ingested nitrate could be a risk factor of prostate cancer, particularly for aggressive tumors. High intakes of fiber, fruit/vegetables and vitamin C may lower this risk. Association with residential levels but not ingested chloroform/Br-THM may suggest inhalation and dermal routes could be relevant for prostate cancer.
Drinking Water | Prostatic Neoplasms | Water Pollutants, Chemical | Adult | Male | Humans | Nitrates | Environmental Exposure | Trihalomethanes | Chloroform | Spain | Ascorbic Acid
- Investigación > IIS > IDIVAL - Instituto de Investigación Marqués de Valdecilla (Cantabria) > IIS - Artículos
- Investigación > IIS > IDIBELL - Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Bellvitge (Cataluña) > IIS - Artículos
- Investigación > IIS > ISPA - Instituto de Investigación de Sanitaria del Principado de Asturias (Asturias) > IIS - Artículos
- Investigación > ISCIII > Centro Nacional de Epidemiología (CNE) > ISCIII - Artículos
Files in this item
- Supplementary1_Long-TermExposu ...
- Supplementary material 1
- Supplementary2_Long-TermExposu ...
- Supplementary material 2
- TableS1_Long-TermExposureNitra ...
- Microsoft Excel 2007
- Supplementary material 3