Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/14472
Evaluation of five diagnostic methods for Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Amhara National Regional State, northwest Ethiopia
Hailu, Tadesse | Amor Aramendia, Aranzazu ISCIII | Nibret, Endalkachew | Munshea, Abaineh | Anegagrie, Melaku ISCIII | Flores-Chavez, Maria ISCIII | Ta Tang, Thuy-Huong ISCIII | Saugar, Jose Maria ISCIII | Benito, Agustin ISCIII
BMC Infect Dis. 2022 Mar 28;22(1):297.
Background: Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal parasite that can cause chronic infection, hyperinfection and/or a dissemination syndrome in humans. The use of techniques targeting ova fails to detect S. stercoralis, as only larvae of the parasite are excreted in faeces. Due to the absence of "Gold" standard diagnostic method for S. stercoralis, there is a paucity of reported data worldwide. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the performance of diagnostic methods of S. stercoralis infection by taking the composite reference as a "Gold" standard. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 844 schoolchildren in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, from April to December 2019. Stool samples were collected and processed with formol-ether concentration technique (FECT), spontaneous tube sedimentation technique (STST), Baermann concentration technique (BCT), agar plate culture (APC) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of each diagnostic method were computed against the composite reference. The agreements of diagnostic methods were evaluated by Kappa value at 95% CI. Results: The composite detection rate of S. stercoralis by the five diagnostic methods was 39.0% (329/844). The detection rate of the parasite from stool samples by FECT, STST, BCT, APC and RT-PCR was 2.0% (17/844), 4.0% (34/844), 10.2% (86/844), 10.9% (92/844) and 28.8% (243/844), respectively. The highest detection rate (37.8%; 319/844) of S. stercoralis was recorded by a combination of BCT, APC, and RT-PCR followed by a combination of STST, BCT, APC and RT-PCR (37.3%; 315/844). The sensitivity of FECT, STST, BCT, APC and RT-PCR against the composite reference was 5.2%, 10.3%, 26.4%, 28.0% and 73.9%, respectively. The diagnostic agreements of RT-PCR, APC, BCT, STST and FECT with the composite reference in detection of S. stercoralis were substantial (0.775), fair (0.321), fair (0.305), slight (0.123), and slight (0.062), respectively. Conclusion: RT-PCR detected the highest number of S. stercoralis infections. A combination of RT-PCR with APC and/or BCT better detected S. stercoralis from stool samples compared to other combinations or single diagnostic methods. Therefore, RT-PCR and combination of RT-PCR with APC and/or BCT diagnostic methods should be advocated for detection of S. stercoralis infection.
Strongyloides stercoralis | Strongyloidiasis | Animals | Child | Cross-Sectional Studies | Ethiopia | Formaldehyde | Humans
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