Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/12429
From 2G to 5G Spatial Modeling of Personal RF-EMF Exposure Within Urban Public Trams
Access IEEE, 2020; 8, 100930 - 100947
The upcoming design and implementation of the new generation of 5G cellular systems, jointly with the multiple wireless communication systems that nowadays coexist within vehicular environments, leads to Heterogeneous Network challenging urban scenarios. In this framework, user's Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields (RF-EMF) radiation exposure assessment is pivotal, to verify compliance with current legislation thresholds. In this work, an in-depth study of the E-field characterization of the personal mobile communications within urban public trams is presented, considering different cellular technologies (from 2G to 5G). Specifically, frequency bands in the range of 5G NR frequency range 1 (FR1) and millimeter wave (mm-wave) bands within frequency range 2 (FR2) have been analyzed for 5G scenarios, considering their dispersive material properties. A simulation approach is presented to assess user mobile phone base station up-link radiation exposure, considering all the significant features of urban transportation trams in terms of structure morphology and topology or the materials employed. In addition, different user densities have been considered at different frequency bands, from 2G to 5G (FR1 and FR2), by means of an in-house developed deterministic 3D Ray-Launching (3D-RL) technique in order to provide clear insight spatial E-field distribution, including the impact in the use of directive antennas and beamforming techniques, within realistic operation conditions. Discussion in relation with current exposure limits have been presented, showing that for all cases, E-Field results are far below the maximum reference levels established by the ICNIRP guidelines. By means of a complete E-field campaign of measurements, performed with both, a personal exposimeter (PEM) and a spectrum analyzer within a real tram wagon car, the proposed methodology has been validated showing good agreement with the experimental measurements. In consequence, a simulation-based analysis...
Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) | Personal exposimeter (PEM) | electromagnetic safety | e-field strength distribution | 3D ray launching (3D-RL) | 5G | urban transportation trams
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