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dc.contributor.authorCelaya-Echarri, Mikel
dc.contributor.authorAzpilicueta, Leyre
dc.contributor.authorKarpowicz, Jolanta
dc.contributor.authorRamos-Gonzalez, Maria Victoria 
dc.contributor.authorLopez-Iturri, Peio
dc.contributor.authorFalcone, Francisco
dc.identifier.citationAccess IEEE, 2020; 8, 100930 - 100947es_ES
dc.description.abstractThe upcoming design and implementation of the new generation of 5G cellular systems, jointly with the multiple wireless communication systems that nowadays coexist within vehicular environments, leads to Heterogeneous Network challenging urban scenarios. In this framework, user's Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields (RF-EMF) radiation exposure assessment is pivotal, to verify compliance with current legislation thresholds. In this work, an in-depth study of the E-field characterization of the personal mobile communications within urban public trams is presented, considering different cellular technologies (from 2G to 5G). Specifically, frequency bands in the range of 5G NR frequency range 1 (FR1) and millimeter wave (mm-wave) bands within frequency range 2 (FR2) have been analyzed for 5G scenarios, considering their dispersive material properties. A simulation approach is presented to assess user mobile phone base station up-link radiation exposure, considering all the significant features of urban transportation trams in terms of structure morphology and topology or the materials employed. In addition, different user densities have been considered at different frequency bands, from 2G to 5G (FR1 and FR2), by means of an in-house developed deterministic 3D Ray-Launching (3D-RL) technique in order to provide clear insight spatial E-field distribution, including the impact in the use of directive antennas and beamforming techniques, within realistic operation conditions. Discussion in relation with current exposure limits have been presented, showing that for all cases, E-Field results are far below the maximum reference levels established by the ICNIRP guidelines. By means of a complete E-field campaign of measurements, performed with both, a personal exposimeter (PEM) and a spectrum analyzer within a real tram wagon car, the proposed methodology has been validated showing good agreement with the experimental measurements. In consequence, a simulation-based analysis...es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported in part by the School of Engineering and Sciences, Tecnologico de Monterrey, in part by the Ministerio deCiencia, Innovación y Universidades, Gobierno de España (MCIU/AEI/FEDER,UE) under Grant RTI2018-095499-B-C31, in part by theMinistry of Science and Higher Education/National Centre for Research and Development and the Ministry of Family, Labour, and SocialPolicy, through the Poland National Programme Improvement of Safety and Working Conditions, and in part by Sub-Directorate-Generalfor Research Assessment and Promotion, Spain, under Project PI14CIII/00056es_ES
dc.publisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) es_ES
dc.subjectRadiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF)es_ES
dc.subjectPersonal exposimeter (PEM)es_ES
dc.subjectElectromagnetic safetyes_ES
dc.subjecte-field strength distributiones_ES
dc.subject3D ray launching (3D-RL)es_ES
dc.subjectUrban transportation tramses_ES
dc.titleFrom 2G to 5G Spatial Modeling of Personal RF-EMF Exposure Within Urban Public Tramses_ES
dc.typejournal articlees_ES
dc.rights.licenseAtribución 4.0 Internacional*
dc.contributor.funderMinisterio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades (España) 
dc.contributor.funderTecnológico de Monterrey (México) 
dc.contributor.funderMinisterio de Ciencia y Universidades (España) 
dc.contributor.funderInstituto de Salud Carlos III 
dc.identifier.journalIEEE Accesses_ES
dc.repisalud.centroISCIII::Unidad de Investigación en Telemedicina y eSaludes_ES
dc.rights.accessRightsopen accesses_ES

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