Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/10453
CD69 Targeting Enhances Anti-vaccinia Virus Immunity.
J Virol . 2019 Sep 12;93(19):e00553-19.
CD69 is highly expressed on the leukocyte surface upon viral infection, and its regulatory role in the vaccinia virus (VACV) immune response has been recently demonstrated using CD69-/- mice. Here, we show augmented control of VACV infection using the anti-human CD69 monoclonal antibody (MAb) 2.8 as both preventive and therapeutic treatment for mice expressing human CD69. This control was related to increased natural killer (NK) cell reactivity and increased numbers of cytokine-producing T and NK cells in the periphery. Moreover, similarly increased immunity and protection against VACV were reproduced over both long and short periods in anti-mouse CD69 MAb 2.2-treated immunocompetent wild-type (WT) mice and immunodeficient Rag2-/- CD69+/+ mice. This result was not due to synergy between infection and anti-CD69 treatment since, in the absence of infection, anti-human CD69 targeting induced immune activation, which was characterized by mobilization, proliferation, and enhanced survival of immune cells as well as marked production of several innate proinflammatory cytokines by immune cells. Additionally, we showed that the rapid leukocyte effect induced by anti-CD69 MAb treatment was dependent on mTOR signaling. These properties suggest the potential of CD69-targeted therapy as an antiviral adjuvant to prevent derived infections.IMPORTANCE In this study, we demonstrate the influence of human and mouse anti-CD69 therapies on the immune response to VACV infection. We report that targeting CD69 increases the leukocyte numbers in the secondary lymphoid organs during infection and improves the capacity to clear the viral infection. Targeting CD69 increases the numbers of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)- and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-producing NK and T cells. In mice expressing human CD69, treatment with an anti-CD69 MAb produces increases in cytokine production, survival, and proliferation mediated in part by mTOR signaling. These results, together with the fact that we have mainly worked with a human-CD69 transgenic model, reveal CD69 as a treatment target to enhance vaccine protectiveness.
Animals | Antibodies, Monoclonal | Antigens, CD | Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte | Disease Models, Animal | Humans | Immunologic Factors | Killer Cells, Natural | Lectins, C-Type | Mice | Mice, Transgenic | Signal Transduction | T-Lymphocytes | TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases | Vaccinia | Vaccinia virus
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