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dc.contributor.authorValencia, Jorge
dc.contributor.authorAlvaro-Meca, Alejandro
dc.contributor.authorTroya, Jesús
dc.contributor.authorGutiérrez, Jorge
dc.contributor.authorRamón, Cristina
dc.contributor.authorRodríguez, Antonio
dc.contributor.authorVazquez-Moron, Sonia 
dc.contributor.authorResino, Salvador 
dc.contributor.authorMoreno, Santiago
dc.contributor.authorRyan, Pablo
dc.identifier.citationPLoS One. 2020 Mar 30;15(3):e0230886.es_ES
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND AND AIMS: In comparison with men, women who use drugs (WWUD) have considerably more frequent and intense experiences with interpersonal violence, sexual abuse and trauma. The aim of this study was to identify issues related to gender-based vulnerability in a group of WWUD attended in a harm reduction facility in Madrid, Spain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted during a screening of blood borne infections. We included WWUD (smoked or injected heroin/cocaine) who were actively screened for HIV, HBV and HCV in a harm reduction setting in Madrid (Spain) from January to December 2017. WWUD were interviewed for gender-based abuse or violence using a face-to-face questionnaire by a trained interviewer. Aspects related to their social-epidemiological condition and gender-based vulnerability were collected. RESULTS: We included 109 women who were actively using drugs. The median age was 39 (IQR 35-47) years, 84.4% were Spanish born, 22.9% were homeless, 43 (41.7%) had ever used injected drugs, 29 (26.6%) were currently using injected drugs, and 27.1% had mental health disorders. Aspects related to gender-based vulnerability were collected. Among those surveyed, they reported having ever suffered emotional or psychological damage (88%), having experienced at least one incident of serious physical injury by a male partner (71%), and having ever suffered sexual abuse (49%). In addition, 28% had ever exchanged sex for money/drugs. When compared to women that did not use injecting drugs, those who injected drugs had more frequently exchanged sex for money/drugs (55% vs 21%, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of WWUD suffer psychological or physical violence by partners denoting gender-based vulnerability. Interventions in harm reduction settings with a multidisciplinary and gender-based approach should be implemented.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipJV has received research grants and honoraria for lectures from Gilead Sciences and travel grants from Gilead Sciences, ViiV, Merck and Janssen; SM has been involved in speaking activities and has received grants for research from Abbott, Boehringer&Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, Glaxo Smith Kline, Janssen Cilag, Merck Sharp&Dohme, Pfizer, Roche, and Schering Plough.; JT has received honoraria for talks from Gilead and Merck; PR has received grant/research support from Merck, Gilead, Janssen, AbbVie and ViiV. Other authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.es_ES
dc.publisherPublic Library of Science (PLOS) es_ES
dc.titleGender-based vulnerability in women who inject drugs in a harm reduction settinges_ES
dc.typejournal articlees_ES
dc.rights.licenseAtribución 4.0 Internacional*
dc.contributor.funderBoehringer Ingelheim Fonds 
dc.contributor.funderBristol-Myers Squibb 
dc.contributor.funderJanssen Cilag 
dc.contributor.funderMerck KGaA 
dc.identifier.journalPloS onees_ES
dc.repisalud.centroISCIII::Centro Nacional de Microbiologíaes_ES
dc.rights.accessRightsopen accesses_ES

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