Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/8597
ISG15 Is Upregulated in Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection and Reduces Virus Growth through Protein ISGylation
J Virol. 2016 Jan 13;90(7):3428-38. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02695-15.
UNLABELLED: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), for which neither a vaccine nor an effective therapeutic treatment is currently available, is the leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in children. Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is a ubiquitin-like protein that is highly increased during viral infections and has been reported to have an antiviral or a proviral activity, depending on the virus. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated strong ISG15 upregulation during RSV infection in vitro. In this study, an in-depth analysis of the role of ISG15 in RSV infection is presented. ISG15 overexpression and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-silencing experiments, along with ISG15 knockout (ISG15(-/-)) cells, revealed an anti-RSV effect of the molecule. Conjugation inhibition assays demonstrated that ISG15 exerts its antiviral activity via protein ISGylation. This antiviral activity requires high levels of ISG15 to be present in the cells before RSV infection. Finally, ISG15 is also upregulated in human respiratory pseudostratified epithelia and in nasopharyngeal washes from infants infected with RSV, pointing to a possible antiviral role of the molecule in vivo. These results advance our understanding of the innate immune response elicited by RSV and open new possibilities to control infections by the virus. IMPORTANCE: At present, no vaccine or effective treatment for human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is available. This study shows that interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) lowers RSV growth through protein ISGylation. In addition, ISG15 accumulation highly correlates with the RSV load in nasopharyngeal washes from children, indicating that ISG15 may also have an antiviral role in vivo. These results improve our understanding of the innate immune response to RSV and identify ISG15 as a potential target for virus control.
Cell Line, Tumor | Cytokines | Endopeptidases | Epithelial Cells | HeLa Cells | Humans | Immunity, Innate | Infant | Protein Processing, Post-Translational | RNA Interference | RNA, Small Interfering | Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections | Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human | Respiratory Tract Infections | Ubiquitin-Activating Enzymes | Ubiquitins
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