Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/7750
Enterocin AS-48 as Evidence for the Use of Bacteriocins as New Leishmanicidal Agents
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Mar 24;61(4). pii: e02288-16.
We report the feasibility of enterocin AS-48, a circular cationic peptide produced by Enterococcus faecalis, as a new leishmanicidal agent. AS-48 is lethal to Leishmania promastigotes as well as to axenic and intracellular amastigotes at low micromolar concentrations, with scarce cytotoxicity to macrophages. AS-48 induced a fast bioenergetic collapse of L. donovani promastigotes but only a partial permeation of their plasma membrane with limited entrance of vital dyes, even at concentrations beyond its full lethality. Fluoresceinated AS-48 was visualized inside parasites by confocal microscopy and seen to cause mitochondrial depolarization and reactive oxygen species production. Altogether, AS-48 appeared to have a mixed leishmanicidal mechanism that includes both plasma membrane permeabilization and additional intracellular targets, with mitochondrial dysfunctionality being of special relevance. This complex leishmanicidal mechanism of AS-48 persisted even for the killing of intracellular amastigotes, as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. We demonstrated the potentiality of AS-48 as a new and safe leishmanicidal agent, expanding the growing repertoire of eukaryotic targets for bacteriocins, and our results provide a proof of mechanism for the search of new leishmanicidal bacteriocins, whose diversity constitutes an almost endless source for new structures at moderate production cost and whose safe use on food preservation is well established.
Adenosine Triphosphate | Antiprotozoal Agents | Bacteriocins | Cell Membrane | Cell Membrane Permeability | Cell Survival | Enterococcus faecalis | Fluorescent Dyes | Inhibitory Concentration 50 | Leishmania | Life Cycle Stages | Macrophages | Microscopy, Electron | Mitochondria | Species Specificity | Staining and Labeling
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