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dc.contributor.authorNuñez, Olivier 
dc.contributor.authorFernandez-Navarro, Pablo L 
dc.contributor.authorMartín-Méndez, Iván
dc.contributor.authorBel-Lan, Alejandro
dc.contributor.authorLocutura, Juan F
dc.contributor.authorLopez-Abente, Gonzalo
dc.identifier.citationEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016; 23(17): 17664–17675.es_ES
dc.description.abstractSpatio-temporal cancer mortality studies in Spain have revealed patterns for some tumours which display a distribution that is similar across the sexes and persists over time. Such characteristics would be common to tumours that shared risk factors, including the chemical soil composition. The objective of the present study is to assess the association between levels of chromium and arsenic in soil and the cancer mortality. This is an ecological cancer mortality study at municipal level, covering 861,440 cancer deaths in 7917 Spanish mainland towns from 1999 to 2008. Chromium and arsenic topsoil levels (partial extraction) were determined by ICP-MS at 13,317 sampling points. To estimate the effect of these concentrations on mortality, we fitted Besag, York and Mollié models, which included, as explanatory variables, each town's chromium and arsenic soil levels, estimated by kriging. In addition, we also fitted geostatistical-spatial models including sample locations and town centroids (non-aligned data), using the integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) and stochastic partial differential equations (SPDE). All results were adjusted for socio-demographic variables and proximity to industrial emissions. The results showed a statistical association in men and women alike, between arsenic soil levels and mortality due to cancers of the stomach, pancreas, lung and brain and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). Among men, an association was observed with cancers of the prostate, buccal cavity and pharynx, oesophagus, colorectal and kidney. Chromium topsoil levels were associated with mortality among women alone, in cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, breast and NHL. Our results suggest that chronic exposure arising from low levels of arsenic and chromium in topsoil could be a potential risk factor for developing cancer.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThe study was partially supported by research grants from the Carlos III Institute of Health (PI4CIII/50) and Spanish Health Research Fund (FIS PI11/00871 and FIS CP11/00112). Mortality data were supplied by the Spanish National Statistics Institute in accordance with a specific confidentiality protocol.es_ES
dc.publisherSpringer es_ES
dc.subjectCancer mortalityes_ES
dc.subjectSpatial dataes_ES
dc.subject.meshArsenic es_ES
dc.subject.meshChromium es_ES
dc.subject.meshEnvironmental Exposure es_ES
dc.subject.meshEnvironmental Pollution es_ES
dc.subject.meshFemale es_ES
dc.subject.meshHumans es_ES
dc.subject.meshIndustry es_ES
dc.subject.meshMale es_ES
dc.subject.meshMiddle Aged es_ES
dc.subject.meshNeoplasms es_ES
dc.subject.meshRisk Factors es_ES
dc.subject.meshSoil es_ES
dc.subject.meshSpain es_ES
dc.titleArsenic and chromium topsoil levels and cancer mortality in Spaines_ES
dc.typejournal articlees_ES
dc.rights.licenseAtribución 4.0 Internacional*
dc.contributor.funderInstituto de Salud Carlos III 
dc.identifier.journalEnvironmental science and pollution research internationales_ES
dc.repisalud.centroISCIII::Centro Nacional de Epidemiologíaes_ES
dc.rights.accessRightsopen accesses_ES

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