Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/6791
Dietary patterns and nutritional status of HIV-infected children and adolescents in El Salvador: A cross-sectional study
Martin-Cañavate, Rocio ISCIII | Sonego, Michela ISCIII | Sagrado, Maria Jose ISCIII | Escobar, Gustavo | Rivas, Estefanie | Ayala, Sandra | Castaneda, Luis | Aparicio, Pilar ISCIII | Custodio, Estefania ISCIII
PLoS One. 2018 May 15;13(5):e0196380
INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to assess the nutritional status, the dietary patterns and its associated factors in the HIV-infected population of children and adolescents on antiretroviral treatment at the El Salvador reference center for pediatric HIV care (CENID). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out between December 2010 and December 2011. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were collected from 307 children and adolescents aged 2-18 years and receiving antiretroviral therapy. Nutritional status was assessed by height-for-age, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age. Dietary data was collected through a 24 hour recall, and through a weekly food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were used to assess the factors associated with "high adherence" to the "healthy diet" pattern. RESULTS: More than a third of the study group (33.2%) were stunted, 3.3% were identified as being wasted, and 10% were overweight or obese. Their diets were predominantly based on a high consumption of cereals, beans, eggs and processed foods and a low consumption of fruits, vegetables and dairy products. Three dietary patterns were identified: "healthy diet", "high fat/sugar diet" and "low diversity diet". Being female (OR: 1.63; 95%CI: 0.97-2.75), younger (OR: 2.37; 95%CI: 1.28-4.36) and institutionalized (OR: 14.5; 95%CI: 5.35-39.50) increased the odds to adhere to the "healthy diet" pattern. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal a high prevalence of stunting and overweight in HIV-infected children in El Salvador. Institutionalized children were more likely to adhere to a healthy dietary pattern whereas children in poverty were more likely to have less varied and healthy diets. These results highlight the need to assess the dietary patterns of HIV-infected children and adolescents in order to guide public policies to design healthy life style interventions for this population at risk.
Adolescent | Anti-HIV Agents | Child | Child, Preschool | Cross-Sectional Studies | Diet Surveys | El Salvador | Female | HIV Infections | Humans | Institutionalization | Male | Poverty Areas | Diet | Nutritional Status
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