Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/13978
Impact of Transcriptome and Gut Microbiome on the Response of HIV-1 Infected Individuals to a Dendritic Cell-Based HIV Therapeutic Vaccine
Vaccines (Basel). 2021;9(7):694
Therapeutic vaccines based on dendritic cells offer a good approach to HIV-specific T-cell responses and partial control of the viral load after antiretroviral therapy interruption. The aim of the present study was to identify mRNA expression profiles and to assess the impact of the gut microbiome composition for predicting the viral load control after antiretroviral therapy interruption. We enrolled 29 patients to receive either placebo or a monocyte-derived dendritic cell vaccine. Patients with a decrease in their viral load of >0.5 log10 copies/mL by 12 weeks after antiretroviral therapy interruption were considered responders. In total, 66 genes were considered differentially expressed between responders and non-responders. Enrichment analysis revealed several upregulated pathways involved in the host defense response to a virus via the type I interferon signaling pathway. Regarding the gut microbiota, responders showed enriched levels of Bacteroidetes (p < 0.005) and Verrucomicrobia (p = 0.017), while non-responders were enriched with Tenericutes (p = 0.049) and Actinobacteria (p < 0.005). We also found important differences at the genus level. However, we did not discover any effect of the dendritic cell vaccine on the transcriptome or the gut microbiota. An alternative analysis did characterize that the microbiota from responders were associated with the metabolic production of short-chain fatty acids, which are key metabolites in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis. The evidence now consistently shows that short-chain fatty acid depletion occurs in HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral treatment.
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