Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/13944
Impact of Plasmodium falciparum pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions on malaria control worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Malar J. 2021;20(1):276.
Background: Deletion of pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes cause false negatives in malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and threating malaria control strategies. This systematic review aims to assess the main methodological aspects in the study of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions and its global epidemiological status, with special focus on their distribution in Africa; and its possible impact in RDT. Methods: The systematic review was conducted by examining the principal issues of study design and methodological workflow of studies addressing pfhrp2 deletion. Meta-analysis was applied to represent reported prevalences of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 single and double deletion in the World Health Organization (WHO) region. Pooled-prevalence of deletions was calculated using DerSimonnian-Laird random effect model. Then, in-deep analysis focused on Africa was performed to assess possible variables related with these deletions. Finally, the impact of these deletions in RDT results was analysed combining reported information about RDT sensitivity and deletion prevalences. Results: 49 articles were included for the systematic review and 37 for the meta-analysis, 13 of them placed in Africa. Study design differs significantly, especially in terms of population sample and information reported, resulting in high heterogeneity between studies that difficulties comparisons and merged conclusions. Reported prevalences vary widely in all the WHO regions, significantly higher deletion were reported in South-Central America, following by Africa and Asia. Pfhrp3 deletion is more prevalent (43% in South-Central America; 3% in Africa; and 1% in Asia) than pfhrp2 deletion (18% in South-Central America; 4% in Africa; and 3% in Asia) worldwide. In Africa, there were not found differences in deletion prevalence by geographical or population origin of samples. The prevalence of deletion among false negatives ranged from 0 to 100% in Africa, but in Asia and South-Central America was only up to 90% and 48%, respectively, showing substantial relation between deletions and false negatives. Conclusion: The concerning prevalence of pfhrp2, pfhrp3 and pfhrp2/3 gene deletions, as its possible implications in malaria control, highlights the importance of regular and systematic surveillance of these deletions. This review has also outlined that a standardized methodology could play a key role to ensure comparability between studies to get global conclusions.