Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/13930
Human prion disease surveillance in Spain, 1993-2018: an overview
Pedro-Cuesta, Jesus de ISCIII | Almazan-Isla, Javier ISCIII | Tejedor Romero, Laura ISCIII | Ruiz-Tovar, Maria ISCIII | Avellanal, Fuencisla ISCIII | Rábano, Alberto | Calero, Miguel ISCIII | Garcia Lopez, Fernando Jose ISCIII | Spanish CJD Surveillance Group
In Spain, human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) have been undergoing continuous surveillance for over 25 years. In 1995, the system was launched as an EU Concerted Action, with EU surveillance network procedures being incorporated from 2002 onwards. The aim of this report was to describe performance and outcomes of this surveillance system across the period 1993-2018. Neurology and public health specialists from every region reported cases to a central hub at the Carlos III Health Institute, Madrid. In all, eight accidentally transmitted cases and five definite variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) patients were reported. All vCJD cases were diagnosed between 2005 and 2008. Two of these were family/dietary-related and spatially linked to a third. Yearly incidence of sporadic CJD per million was 1.25 across the period 1998-2018, and displayed a north-south gradient with the highest incidence in La Rioja, Navarre and the Basque Country. Genetic TSEs were observed to be clustered in the Basque Country, with a 4-fold incidence over the national rate. A total of 120 (5.6%) non-TSE sporadic, conformational, rapidly progressing neurodegenerative and vascular brain disorders were reported as suspect CJD. We conclude that TSEs in Spain displayed geographically uneven, stable medium incidences for the sporadic and genetic forms, a temporal and spatial family cluster for vCJD, and decreasing numbers for dura-mater-associated forms. The vCJD surveillance, framed within the EU network, might require continuing to cover all prion disorders. There is need for further strategic surveillance research focusing on case definition of rapid-course, conformational encephalopathies and surgical risk.
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies | Creutzfeldt-jakob disease | Epidemiology | Prion proteins | Registries | Surveillance | Spain
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