Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/13459
Impaired glucose metabolism reduces the neuroprotective action of adipocytokines in cognitively normal older adults with insulin resistance
Aging (Albany NY). 2021 Nov 3;13(21):23936-23952.
Evidence suggests that aging-related dysfunctions of adipose tissue and metabolic disturbances increase the risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MtbS), eventually leading to cognitive impairment and dementia. However, the neuroprotective role of adipocytokines in this process has not been specifically investigated. The present study aims to identify metabolic alterations that may prevent adipocytokines from exerting their neuroprotective action in normal ageing. We hypothesize that neuroprotection may occur under insulin resistance (IR) conditions as long as there are no other metabolic alterations that indirectly impair the action of adipocytokines, such as hyperglycemia. This hypothesis was tested in 239 cognitively normal older adults (149 females) aged 52 to 87 years (67.4 ± 5.9 yr). We assessed whether the homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the presence of different components of MtbS moderated the association of plasma adipocytokines (i.e., adiponectin, leptin and the adiponectin to leptin [Ad/L] ratio) with cognitive functioning and cortical thickness. The results showed that HOMA-IR, circulating triglyceride and glucose levels moderated the neuroprotective effect of adipocytokines. In particular, elevated triglyceride levels reduced the beneficial effect of Ad/L ratio on cognitive functioning in insulin-sensitive individuals; whereas under high IR conditions, it was elevated glucose levels that weakened the association of the Ad/L ratio with cognitive functioning and with cortical thickness of prefrontal regions. Taken together, these findings suggest that the neuroprotective action of adipocytokines is conditioned not only by whether cognitively normal older adults are insulin-sensitive or not, but also by the circulating levels of triglycerides and glucose, respectively.
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