Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/12893
Surveillance for Enteroviruses Associated with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, and Other Mucocutaneous Symptoms in Spain, 2006-2020.
Viruses. 2021 Apr 28;13(5):781
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a mild illness caused by enteroviruses (EV), although in some Asian countries, large outbreaks have been reported in the last 25 years, with a considerable incidence of neurological complications. This study describes epidemiological and clinical characteristics of EV infections involved in HFMD and other mucocutaneous symptoms from 2006 to 2020 in Spain. EV-positive samples from 368 patients were included. EV species A were identified in 85.1% of those typed EV. Coxsackievirus (CV) A6 was the prevalent serotype (60.9%), followed by EV-A71 (9.9%) and CVA16 (7.7%). Infections affected children (1-6 years old) mainly, and show seasonality with peaks in spring-summer and autumn. Clinical data indicated few cases of atypical HFMD as well as those with neurological complications (associated with the 2016 EV-A71 outbreak). Phylogenetic analysis of CVA6 VP1 sequences showed different sub-clusters circulating from 2010 to present. In conclusion, HFMD or exanthemas case reporting has increased in Spain in recent years, probably associated with an increase in circulation of CVA6, although they did not seem to show greater severity. However, EV surveillance in mucocutaneous manifestations should be improved to identify the emergence of new types or variants causing outbreaks and more severe pathologies.