Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/11967
The association of urinary cadmium with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a general population sample of US adult men
BMC Public Health. 2008; 8:72
Background: Studies investigating the association of cadmium and sex steroid hormones in men have been inconsistent, but previous studies were relatively small. Methods: In a nationally representative sample of 1,262 men participating in the morning examination session of phase I (1998–1991) of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, creatinine corrected urinary cadmium and serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones were measured following a standardized protocol. Results: After adjustment for age and race-ethnicity, higher cadmium levels were associated with higher levels of total testosterone, total estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, estimated free testosterone, and estimated free estradiol (each p-trend < 0.05). After additionally adjusting for smoking status and serum cotinine, none of the hormones maintained an association with urinary cadmium (each p-trend > 0.05). Conclusion: Urinary cadmium levels were not associated with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a large nationally representative sample of US men.
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