Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/11683
Clinical Characterization of Parkinson's Disease Patients With Cognitive Impairment.
Front Neurol . 2020 Aug 4;11:731.
Background: Cognitive impairment is one of the most frequent and disabling non-motor symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD) and encompasses a continuum from mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) to dementia (PDD). The risk factors associated with them are not completely elucidated. Objective: To characterize the presence and clinical presentation of PD-MCI and PDD in patients with idiopathic PD, examining motor and non-motor features and determining factors associated with cognitive impairment. Methods: Multicenter, cross-sectional study in 298 PD patients who underwent clinical [Hoehn and Yahr (HY) staging and Clinical Impression of Severity Index for Parkinson Disease], neurological [Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease (SCOPA)-Motor], neuropsychological (Mini Mental State Examination, SCOPA-Cognition, Frontal Assessment Battery and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale), neuropsychiatric [SCOPA-Psychiatric complications, SCOPA-Psychosocial (SCOPA-PS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)], and health-related quality of life [Parkinson Disease Questionnaire for quality of life (PDQ-8)] assessment. Movement Disorders Society criteria were applied to classify patients as normal cognition (NC), PD-MCI, and PDD. The association between variables was explored using multivariate binary and multinomial logistic regression models. Results: Seventy-two patients (24.2%) were classified as NC, 82 (27.5%) as PD-MCI, and 144 (48.3%) as PDD. These last two groups reported more psychosocial problems related with the disease (mean SCOPA-PS, 16.27 and 10.39, respectively), compared with NC (7.28) and lower quality-of-life outcomes (PDQ-8 48.98 and 28.42, respectively) compared to NC (19.05). The logistic regression analysis showed that both cognitive impaired groups had a more severe stage of PD measured by HY [odds ratio (OR) for MCI-PD, 2.45; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22-4.90; OR for PDD 2.64; 95% CI, 1.17-5.98]. Specifically, age (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.16-1.47), years of education (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99), disease duration (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.32), HADS-D (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.06-1.35), and hallucinations (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.16-7.69) were related to PDD. Conclusions: Cognitive impairment in PD is associated with more severe disease stage, resulting in a global, neuropsychiatric, psychosocial, and quality-of-life deterioration. This study provides a better understanding of the great impact that cognitive impairment has within the natural history of PD and its relationship with the rest of motor and non-motor symptoms in the disease.
Parkinson's disease | clinical characteristics | cognitive dysfunction | dementia | mild cognitive impairment | motor and non-motor symptoms.
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