Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/11569
SOS GEFs in health and disease.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer . 2020 Dec;1874(2):188445
SOS1 and SOS2 are the most universal and widely expressed family of guanine exchange factors (GEFs) capable or activating RAS or RAC1 proteins in metazoan cells. SOS proteins contain a sequence of modular domains that are responsible for different intramolecular and intermolecular interactions modulating mechanisms of self-inhibition, allosteric activation and intracellular homeostasis. Despite their homology, analyses of SOS1/2-KO mice demonstrate functional prevalence of SOS1 over SOS2 in cellular processes including proliferation, migration, inflammation or maintenance of intracellular redox homeostasis, although some functional redundancy cannot be excluded, particularly at the organismal level. Specific SOS1 gain-of-function mutations have been identified in inherited RASopathies and various sporadic human cancers. SOS1 depletion reduces tumorigenesis mediated by RAS or RAC1 in mouse models and is associated with increased intracellular oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Since WT RAS is essential for development of RAS-mutant tumors, the SOS GEFs may be considered as relevant biomarkers or therapy targets in RAS-dependent cancers. Inhibitors blocking SOS expression, intrinsic GEF activity, or productive SOS protein-protein interactions with cellular regulators and/or RAS/RAC targets have been recently developed and shown preclinical and clinical effectiveness blocking aberrant RAS signaling in RAS-driven and RTK-driven tumors.
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