Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/10051
Elevated liver stiffness is linked to increased biomarkers of inflammation and immune activation in HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients
Medrano, Luz Maria ISCIII | Garcia-Broncano, Pilar ISCIII | Berenguer, Juan | González-García, Juan | Jimenez-Sousa, Maria Angeles ISCIII | Guardiola, Josep M | Crespo, Manuel | Quereda, Carmen | Sanz, José | Canorea, Isabel ISCIII | Carrero, Ana | Hontañón, Victor | Muñoz-Fernández, Ma Ángeles | Resino, Salvador ISCIII
AIDS. 2018 Jun 1;32(9):1095-1105
OBJECTIVES: Immune dysregulation is a hallmark of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and biomarkers of T-cell activation, bacterial translocation, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and coagulopathy in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: We studied 238 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, 32 healthy controls, and 39 HIV-monoinfected patients. Patients were stratified according to LSM into four groups: less than 12.5, 12.5-25, 25-40, and more than 40 kPa. T-cell subsets were measured using flow cytometry and plasma biomarkers using immunoassays. RESULTS: HIV/HCV-coinfected patients had higher biomarker levels of immune activation in peripheral blood [T-cell activation (CD4CD38 and CD8CD38), bacterial translocation (soluble CD14), inflammation [IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10)] endothelial dysfunction [soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM1), soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM1), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1)], and coagulopathy (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1)] than healthy controls and HIV-monoinfected patients. Moreover, in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, a direct relationship between LSM and immune activation [T-cell activation (CD8CD38 bacterial translocation (lipopolysaccharide), inflammation (IL-8, IP-10), endothelial dysfunction (sVCAM1, sICAM1, and sTNFR1), and coagulopathy (D-dimer)] was found. Subsequently, patients were stratified into different fibrosis stages, finding that patients with cirrhosis who had LSM at least 40 kPa showed higher biomarker values of immune activation [T-cell activation (CD4CD38 and CD8CD38), bacterial translocation (lipopolysaccharide), inflammation (IL-8, IL-6, IP-10), endothelial dysfunction (sVCAM1, sICAM1, and sTNFR1), and coagulopathy (D-dimer)] than patients from the other three groups (<12.5, 12.5-25, and 25-40 kPa). CONCLUSION: T-cell activation, bacterial translocation, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and coagulopathy increased with the severity of liver fibrosis in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, particularly in patients who had LSM at least 40 kPa.
Bacterial Translocation | Biomarkers | Coinfection | Cross-Sectional Studies | Female | Flow Cytometry | HIV Infections | Hepatitis C, Chronic | Humans | Inflammation | Liver | Male | Middle Aged | Severity of Illness Index | Lymphocyte Activation
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