Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/8326
Instantaneous Amplitude and Frequency Modulations Detect the Footprint of Rotational Activity and Reveal Stable Driver Regions as Targets for Persistent Atrial Fibrillation Ablation
Circ Res. 2019; 125(6):609-627
RATIONALE: Costly proprietary panoramic multielectrode (64-256) acquisition systems are being increasingly used together with conventional electroanatomical mapping systems for persistent atrial fibrillation (PersAF) ablation. However, such approaches target alleged drivers (rotational/focal) regardless of their activation frequency dynamics. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that stable regions of higher than surrounding instantaneous frequency modulation (iFM) drive PersAF and determine whether rotational activity is specific for such regions. METHODS AND RESULTS: First, novel single-signal algorithms based on instantaneous amplitude modulation (iAM) and iFM to detect rotational-footprints without panoramic multielectrode acquisition systems were tested in 125 optical movies from 5 ex vivo Langendorff-perfused PersAF sheep hearts (sensitivity/specificity, 92.6/97.5%; accuracy, 2.5-mm) and in computer simulations. Then, 16 pigs underwent high-rate atrial pacing to develop PersAF. After a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 4.4 (IQR, 2.5-9.9) months of high-rate atrial pacing followed by 4.1 (IQR, 2.7-5.4) months of self-sustained PersAF, pigs underwent in vivo high-density electroanatomical atrial mapping (4920 [IQR, 4435-5855] 8-second unipolar signals per map). The first 4 out of 16 pigs were used to adapt ex vivo optical proccessing of iFM/iAM to in vivo electrical signals. In the remaining 12 out of 16 pigs, regions of higher than surrounding average iFM were considered leading-drivers. Two leading-driver + rotational-footprint maps were generated 2.6 (IQR, 2.4-2.9) hours apart to test leading-driver spatiotemporal stability and guide ablation. Leading-driver regions (2.5 [IQR, 2.0-4.0] regions/map) exactly colocalized (95.7%) in the 2 maps, and their ablation terminated PersAF in 92.3% of procedures (radiofrequency until termination, 16.9 [IQR, 9.2-35.8] minutes; until nonsustainability, 20.4 [IQR, 12.8-44.0] minutes). Rotational-footprints were found at every leading-driver region, albeit most (76.8% [IQR, 70.5%-83.6%]) were located outside. Finally, the translational ability of this approach was tested in 3 PersAF redo patients. CONCLUSIONS: Both rotational-footprints and spatiotemporally stable leading-driver regions can be located using iFM/iAM algorithms without panoramic multielectrode acquisition systems. In pigs, ablation of leading-driver regions usually terminates PersAF and prevents its sustainability. Rotational activations are sensitive but not specific to such regions. Single-signal iFM/iAM algorithms could be integrated into conventional electroanatomical mapping systems to improve driver detection accuracy and reduce the cost of patient-tailored/mechanistic approaches.
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