Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/5243
Differences in Hypercholesterolemia and Atherogenesis Induced by Common Androgen Deprivation Therapies in Male Mice
J Am Heart Assoc. 2016; 5(2):e002800
Background-Treatment of prostate cancer often involves androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor agonists, GnRH receptor antagonists, or orchiectomy. ADT may increase the rate of cardiovascular disease events, but recent clinical studies suggested that not all means of ADT carry the same risk, raising the possibility of non-testosterone-mediated effects of different forms of ADT on atherosclerosis. Here we compared effects of ADT on atherosclerosis in intact and orchiectomized Apoe-deficient mice. Methods and Results-Chow-fed Apoe-deficient mice were allocated to orchiectomy and/or monthly injections with the GnRH receptor agonist leuprolide or the GnRH receptor antagonist degarelix. Atherosclerosis was quantified at 26 weeks of age in the aortic arch by en face examination and in the aortic root by histology. In intact Apoe-deficient mice, all types of ADT reduced testosterone production to castration levels. Although hypercholesterolemia was accentuated in leuprolide-treated mice, the amount and composition of atherosclerosis was not different between the different types of ADT. In orchiectomized Apoe-deficient mice, leuprolide, but not degarelix, augmented hypercholesterolemia, changed body, thymus, and spleen weights, and increased atherosclerosis in the aortic root. No direct effects of the drugs were detectable on cytokine secretion from murine bone marrow-derived macrophages or on splenocyte proliferation. Conclusions-No differences in the development of atherosclerosis were detected among groups of intact Apoe-deficient mice treated with different types of ADT. A pro-atherogenic, possibly cholesterol-mediated, effect of leuprolide was seen in orchiectomized mice that might be relevant for understanding the potential cardiovascular risk associated with GnRH agonist-based ADT.
androgen deprivation therapy | atherosclerosis | inflammation | testosterone | GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING-HORMONE | PROSTATE-CANCER | CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE | GNRH RECEPTOR | MURINE LUPUS | MOUSE MODEL | ATHEROSCLEROSIS | RISK | MEN | EXPRESSION
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