Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/14674
Not all mitochondrial DNAs are made equal and the nucleus knows it.
IUBMB Life. 2021, 73(3):511-529.
The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system is the only structure in animal cells with components encoded by two genomes, maternally transmitted mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and biparentally transmitted nuclear DNA (nDNA). MtDNA-encoded genes have to physically assemble with their counterparts encoded in the nucleus to build together the functional respiratory complexes. Therefore, structural and functional matching requirements between the protein subunits of these molecular complexes are rigorous. The crosstalk between nDNA and mtDNA needs to overcome some challenges, as the nuclear-encoded factors have to be imported into the mitochondria in a correct quantity and match the high number of organelles and genomes per mitochondria that encode and synthesize their own components locally. The cell is able to sense the mito-nuclear match through changes in the activity of the OXPHOS system, modulation of the mitochondrial biogenesis, or reactive oxygen species production. This implies that a complex signaling cascade should optimize OXPHOS performance to the cellular-specific requirements, which will depend on cell type, environmental conditions, and life stage. Therefore, the mitochondria would function as a cellular metabolic information hub integrating critical information that would feedback the nucleus for it to respond accordingly. Here, we review the current understanding of the complex interaction between mtDNA and nDNA.
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