Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/12544
Coronary microcirculation damage in anthracycline cardiotoxicity.
Galan-Arriola, Carlos CNIC | Vilchez-Tschischke, Jean Paul | Lobo, Manuel | Lopez, Gonzalo Javier CNIC | Molina-Iracheta, Antonio CNIC | Pérez-Martínez, Claudia | Villena-Gutierrez, Rocio CNIC | Macías, Álvaro CNIC | Díaz-Rengifo, Iván A | Oliver, Eduardo CNIC | Fuster, Valentin CNIC | Sanchez-Gonzalez, Javier CNIC | Ibanez, Borja CNIC
Cardiovasc Res. 2021
The aim of this study was to study changes in coronary microcirculation status during and after several cycles of anthracycline treatment. Large-White male pigs (n = 40) were included in different experimental protocols (ExPr.) according to anthracycline cumulative exposure (0.45 mg/kg intracoronary (IC) doxorubicin per injection) and follow-up: Control (no doxorubicin); Single injection and sacrifice either at 48 hours (ExPr. 1) or 2 weeks (ExPr. 2); Three injections two weeks apart (low cumulative dose) and sacrifice either 2 weeks (ExPr. 3) or 12 weeks (ExPr. 4) after third injection; Five injections two weeks apart (high cumulative dose) and sacrifice 8 weeks after fifth injection (ExPr. 5). All groups were assessed by serial cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) to quantify perfusion and invasive measurement of coronary flow reserve (CFR). At the end of each protocol, animals were sacrificed for ex vivo analyses. Vascular function was further evaluated by myography in explanted coronary arteries of pigs undergoing ExPr. 3 and controls.A single doxorubicin injection had no impact on microcirculation status, excluding a direct chemical toxicity. A series of five fortnightly doxorubicin injections (high cumulative dose) triggered a progressive decline in microcirculation status, evidenced by reduced CMR-based myocardial perfusion and CFR-measured impaired functional microcirculation. In the high cumulative dose regime (ExPr. 5), microcirculation changes appeared long before any contractile defect became apparent. Low cumulative doxorubicin dose (3 biweekly injections) was not associated with any contractile defect across long-term follow-up, but provoked persistent microcirculation damage, evident soon after third dose injection. Histological and myograph evaluations confirmed structural damage to arteries of all calibers even in animals undergoing low cumulative dose regimes. Conversely, arteriole damage and capillary bed alteration occurred only after high cumulative dose regime. Serial in vivo evaluations of microcirculation status using state-of-the-art CMR and invasive CFR show that anthracyclines treatment is associated with progressive and irreversible damage to the microcirculation. This long-persisting damage is present even in low cumulative dose regimes, which are not associated with cardiac contractile deficits. Microcirculation damage might explain some of the increased incidence of cardiovascular events in cancer survivors who received anthracyclines without showing cardiac contractile defects.