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dc.contributor.authorDelgado, Elena 
dc.contributor.authorBenito, Sonia 
dc.contributor.authorMontero, Vanessa 
dc.contributor.authorCuevas, Maria Teresa 
dc.contributor.authorFernández-García, Aurora 
dc.contributor.authorSanchez-Martinez, Monica 
dc.contributor.authorGarcia-Bodas, Elena 
dc.contributor.authorDiez-Fuertes, Francisco 
dc.contributor.authorGil, Horacio 
dc.contributor.authorCañada, Javier 
dc.contributor.authorCarrera, Cristina 
dc.contributor.authorMartinez-Lopez, Joaquin 
dc.contributor.authorSintes, Marcos 
dc.contributor.authorPerez-Alvarez, Lucia 
dc.contributor.authorThomson, Michael M
dc.identifier.citationFront Microbiol. 2019 Apr 3;10:655.es_ES
dc.description.abstractIn Western Europe, the HIV-1 epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) is dominated by subtype B. However, recently, other genetic forms have been reported to circulate in this population, as evidenced by their grouping in clusters predominantly comprising European individuals. Here we describe four large HIV-1 non-subtype B clusters spreading among MSM in Spain. Samples were collected in 9 regions. A pol fragment was amplified from plasma RNA or blood-extracted DNA. Phylogenetic analyses were performed via maximum likelihood, including database sequences of the same genetic forms as the identified clusters. Times and locations of the most recent common ancestors (MRCA) of clusters were estimated with a Bayesian method. Five large non-subtype B clusters associated with MSM were identified. The largest one, of F1 subtype, was reported previously. The other four were of CRF02_AG (CRF02_1; n = 115) and subtypes A1 (A1_1; n = 66), F1 (F1_3; n = 36), and C (C_7; n = 17). Most individuals belonging to them had been diagnosed of HIV-1 infection in the last 10 years. Each cluster comprised viruses from 3 to 8 Spanish regions and also comprised or was related to viruses from other countries: CRF02_1 comprised a Japanese subcluster and viruses from 8 other countries from Western Europe, Asia, and South America; A1_1 comprised viruses from Portugal, United Kingom, and United States, and was related to the A1 strain circulating in Greece, Albania and Cyprus; F1_3 was related to viruses from Romania; and C_7 comprised viruses from Portugal and was related to a virus from Mozambique. A subcluster within CRF02_1 was associated with heterosexual transmission. Near full-length genomes of each cluster were of uniform genetic form. Times of MRCAs of CRF02_1, A1_1, F1_3, and C_7 were estimated around 1986, 1989, 2013, and 1983, respectively. MRCA locations for CRF02_1 and A1_1 were uncertain (however initial expansions in Spain in Madrid and Vigo, respectively, were estimated) and were most probable in Bilbao, Spain, for F1_3 and Portugal for C_7. These results show that the HIV-1 epidemic among MSM in Spain is becoming increasingly diverse through the expansion of diverse non-subtype B clusters, comprising or related to viruses circulating in other countries.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was funded through Acción Estratégica en Salud Intramural (AESI), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, project “Estudios sobre vigilancia epidemiológica molecular del VIH-1 en España,” PI16CIII/00033; Red de Investigación en SIDA (RIS), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Subdirección General de Evaluación y Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER), Plan Nacional I+D+I, project RD16ISCIII/0002/0004; scientific agreements with Consellería de Sanidade, Government of Galicia (MVI 1004/16) and Osakidetza-Servicio Vasco de Salud, Government of Basque Country (MVI 1001/16); European Research Infrastructures for Poverty Related Diseases (EURIPRED). Seventh Framework Program: FP7-Capacities-infrastructures-2012-1, grant agreement 312661; and Dirección General de Farmacia, Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad, Government of Spain (grant EC11-272).es_ES
dc.publisherFrontiers Mediaes_ES
dc.relation.isversionofPublisher's versiones_ES
dc.subjectcirculating recombinant formses_ES
dc.subjectmen who have sex with menes_ES
dc.subjectmolecular epidemiologyes_ES
dc.titleDiverse Large HIV-1 Non-subtype B Clusters Are Spreading Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Spaines_ES
dc.rights.licenseAtribución 4.0 Internacional*
dc.contributor.funderInstituto de Salud Carlos III - ISCIIIes_ES
dc.contributor.funderRed Española de Investigación en SIDAes_ES
dc.contributor.funderEuropean Regional Development Fund (ERDF/FEDER)es_ES
dc.contributor.funderGobierno Vascoes_ES
dc.contributor.funderXunta de Galiciaes_ES
dc.contributor.funderEuropean Research Infrastructures for Poverty Related Diseases EURIPREDes_ES
dc.contributor.funderEuropean Uniones_ES
dc.contributor.funderMinisterio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad (España)es_ES
dc.identifier.journalFrontiers in microbiologyes_ES
dc.repisalud.centroISCIII::Centro Nacional de Microbiologíaes_ES
dc.relation.projectIDinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/ES/MVI 1001/16es_ES

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