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dc.contributor.authorJimenez-Sousa, Maria Angeles 
dc.contributor.authorMartinez, Isidoro 
dc.contributor.authorMedrano, Luz Maria 
dc.contributor.authorFernandez-Rodriguez, Amanda 
dc.contributor.authorResino, Salvador
dc.identifier.citationFront Immunol. 2018 Mar 12;9:458.es_ES
dc.description.abstractPeople living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection typically have hypovitaminosis D, which is linked to a large number of pathologies, including immune disorders and infectious diseases. Vitamin D (VitD) is a key regulator of host defense against infections by activating genes and pathways that enhance innate and adaptive immunity. VitD mediates its biological effects by binding to the Vitamin D receptor (VDR), and activating and regulating multiple cellular pathways. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes from those pathways have been associated with protection from HIV-1 infection. High levels of VitD and VDR expression are also associated with natural resistance to HIV-1 infection. Conversely, VitD deficiency is linked to more inflammation and immune activation, low peripheral blood CD4+ T-cells, faster progression of HIV disease, and shorter survival time in HIV-infected patients. VitD supplementation and restoration to normal values in HIV-infected patients may improve immunologic recovery during combination antiretroviral therapy, reduce levels of inflammation and immune activation, and increase immunity against pathogens. Additionally, VitD may protect against the development of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome events, pulmonary tuberculosis, and mortality among HIV-infected patients. In summary, this review suggests that VitD deficiency may contribute to the pathogenesis of HIV infection. Also, VitD supplementation seems to reverse some alterations of the immune system, supporting the use of VitD supplementation as prophylaxis, especially in individuals with more severe VitD deficiency.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work has been supported by grants given by Fondo de Investigación de Sanidad en España (FIS) (Spanish Health Founds for Research) (grant number PI14CIII/00011 and PI15CIII/00024). MJ-S, AF-R, and LM are supported by “Instituto de Salud Carlos III” (grant numbers CD13/00013, CP14CIII/00010, and CD14/00002, respectively).es_ES
dc.publisherFrontiers Mediaes_ES
dc.relation.isversionofPublisher's versiones_ES
dc.subjectadaptive immunityes_ES
dc.subjecthuman immunodeficiency viruses_ES
dc.subjectimmune activationes_ES
dc.subjectinnate immunityes_ES
dc.subjectvitamin D deficiencyes_ES
dc.subject.meshAdaptive Immunity es_ES
dc.subject.meshAnimals es_ES
dc.subject.meshCD4 Lymphocyte Count es_ES
dc.subject.meshDietary Supplements es_ES
dc.subject.meshDisease Progression es_ES
dc.subject.meshHIV es_ES
dc.subject.meshHIV Infections es_ES
dc.subject.meshHumans es_ES
dc.subject.meshInflammation es_ES
dc.subject.meshReceptors, Calcitriol es_ES
dc.subject.meshVitamin D es_ES
dc.subject.meshVitamin D Deficiency es_ES
dc.titleVitamin D in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Influence on Immunity and Diseasees_ES
dc.rights.licenseAtribución 4.0 Internacional*
dc.contributor.funderFondo de Investigaciones Sanitariases_ES
dc.contributor.funderInstituto de Salud Carlos III - ISCIIIes_ES
dc.identifier.journalFrontiers in immunologyes_ES
dc.repisalud.centroISCIII::Centro Nacional de Microbiologíaes_ES

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