Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/8346
Temporal dynamics and pathophysiology of the edematous response after acute myocardial infarction: a translational journey
Ibanez, Borja CNIC
Post-myocardial infarction tissue composition is highly dynamic and can be characterized by cardiac magnetic resonance, which has been used to assess surrogate outcomes and efficacy endpoints in many experimental and clinical studies. However, there is a paucity of studies tracking the temporal dynamics of these processes and analyzing their pathophysiology in a comprehensive manner. The experimental and clinical work contained in this dissertation shows that the degree and extent of post-myocardial infarction tissue composition changes (mainly edema; but also necrosis, hemorrhage and microvascular obstruction) as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance are variable according to the time from infarction, duration of ischemia, cardioprotective strategies, and the interplay between them. These dynamic changes should be taken into consideration when performing image acquisition. Comparative studies should be performed at similar timings to avoid the bias of these dynamic changes. Thus, and in contrast to the accepted view, it is shown for the first time that myocardial edema in the week after ischemia/reperfusion is a bimodal phenomenon, both in pigs and humans. The initial wave of edema, appearing abruptly upon reperfusion and which is significantly attenuated at 24 hours, is due to the reperfusion process itself. The deferred wave of edema, appearing progressively days after ischemia/reperfusion and reaching a plateau between days 4 to 7, is mainly caused by the tissue healing processes. These findings highlight the need for standardizing experimental and clinical protocols for post-myocardial infarction tissue characterization aiming to quantify edema, myocardial area at risk, infarct size, myocardial salvage, intramyocardial hemorrhage and microvascular obstruction. The timeframe between day 4 and 7 post-infarction seems a good compromise solution according to translational data here presented. However, further studies and expert consensus are needed to stablish more precise recommendations.
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