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dc.contributor.authorGullón, Pedro 
dc.contributor.authorBilal, Usama 
dc.contributor.authorCebrecos, Alba
dc.contributor.authorBadland, Hannah
dc.contributor.authorGalán, Iñaki 
dc.contributor.authorFranco, Manuel
dc.identifier.citationInt J Health Geogr. 2017 Jun 6;16(1):21.es_ES
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Previous studies found a complex relationship between area-level socioeconomic status (SES) and walkability. These studies did not include neighborhood dynamics. Our aim was to study the association between area-level SES and walkability in the city of Madrid (Spain) evaluating the potential effect modification of neighborhood dynamics. METHODS: All census sections of the city of Madrid (n = 2415) were included. Area-level SES was measured using a composite index of 7 indicators in 4 domains (education, wealth, occupation and living conditions). Two neighborhood dynamics factors were computed: gentrification, proxied by change in education levels in the previous 10 years, and neighborhood age, proxied by median year of construction of housing units in the area. Walkability was measured using a composite index of 4 indicators (Residential Density, Population Density, Retail Destinations and Street Connectivity). We modeled the association using linear mixed models with random intercepts. RESULTS: Area-level SES and walkability were inversely and significantly associated. Areas with lower SES showed the highest walkability. This pattern did not hold for areas with an increase in education level, where the association was flat (no decrease in walkability with higher SES). Moreover, the association was attenuated in newly built areas: the association was stronger in areas built before 1975, weaker in areas built between 1975 and 1990 and flat in areas built from 1990 on. CONCLUSION: Areas with higher neighborhood socioeconomic status had lower walkability in Madrid. This disadvantage in walkability was not present in recently built or gentrified areas.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study was supported by the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013)/ERC Starting Grant HeartHealthyHoods Agreement n. 336893. PG was supported by Enrique Nájera grant for Young Epidemiologists (12th edition) awarded by the Sociedad Española. UB was supported by a fellowship from the Obra Social La Caixa and by a Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future-Lerner Fellowship. HB was in part supported by VicHealth, the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Centre of Research Excellence in Healthy, Liveable Communities (#1061404), and The Australian Prevention Partnership Centre (#9100001), with funding provided by NHMRC, ACT Health, NSW Health, the Australian National Preventive Health Agency, the Hospitals’ Contribution Fund of Australia, and the HCF Research Foundation.es_ES
dc.relation.isversionofPublisher's versiones_ES
dc.subjectPhysical activityes_ES
dc.subject.meshEnvironment Design es_ES
dc.subject.meshHumans es_ES
dc.subject.meshSpain es_ES
dc.subject.meshHealth Status Disparities es_ES
dc.subject.meshResidence Characteristics es_ES
dc.subject.meshSocial Class es_ES
dc.subject.meshSpatial Analysis es_ES
dc.subject.meshWalking es_ES
dc.titleIntersection of neighborhood dynamics and socioeconomic status in small-area walkability: the Heart Healthy Hoods projectes_ES
dc.rights.licenseAtribución 4.0 Internacional*
dc.contributor.funderEuropean Uniones_ES
dc.identifier.journalInternational journal of health geographicses_ES
dc.repisalud.centroISCIII::Escuela Nacional de Sanidades_ES
dc.repisalud.centroISCIII::Centro Nacional de Epidemologíaes_ES

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