Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/7049
Phlebotomine sand fly survey in the focus of leishmaniasis in Madrid, Spain (2012-2014): seasonal dynamics, Leishmania infantum infection rates and blood meal preferences
Parasit Vectors. 2017 Aug 1;10(1):368
BACKGROUND: An unusual increase of human leishmaniasis cases due to Leishmania infantum is occurring in an urban area of southwestern Madrid, Spain, since 2010. Entomological surveys have shown that Phlebotomus perniciosus is the only potential vector. Direct xenodiagnosis in hares (Lepus granatensis) and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) collected in the focus area proved that they can transmit parasites to colonized P. perniciosus. Isolates were characterized as L. infantum. The aim of the present work was to conduct a comprehensive study of sand flies in the outbreak area, with special emphasis on P. perniciosus. METHODS: Entomological surveys were done from June to October 2012-2014 in 4 stations located close to the affected area. Twenty sticky traps (ST) and two CDC light traps (LT) were monthly placed during two consecutive days in every station. LT were replaced every morning. Sand fly infection rates were determined by dissecting females collected with LT. Molecular procedures applied to study blood meal preferences and to detect L. infantum were performed for a better understanding of the epidemiology of the outbreak. RESULTS: A total of 45,127 specimens belonging to 4 sand fly species were collected: P. perniciosus (75.34%), Sergentomyia minuta (24.65%), Phlebotomus sergenti (0.005%) and Phlebotomus papatasi (0.005%). No Phlebotomus ariasi were captured. From 3203 P. perniciosus female dissected, 117 were infected with flagellates (3.7%). Furthermore, 13.31% and 7.78% of blood-fed and unfed female sand flies, respectively, were found infected with L. infantum by PCR. The highest rates of infected P. perniciosus were detected at the end of the transmission periods. Regarding to blood meal preferences, hares and rabbits were preferred, although human, cat and dog blood were also found. CONCLUSIONS: This entomological study highlights the exceptional nature of the Leishmania outbreak occurring in southwestern Madrid, Spain. It is confirmed that P. perniciosus is the only vector in the affected area, with high densities and infection rates. Rabbits and hares were the main blood meal sources of this species. These results reinforce the need for an extensive and permanent surveillance in this region, and others of similar characteristics, in order to control the vector and regulate the populations of wild reservoirs.
Blood meal preferences | Central Spain | Human leishmaniasis | Leishmania infantum | PCR | Phlebotomus perniciosus | Sand fly infection rates | Southwestern Madrid
Animals | Blood | Disease Transmission, Infectious | Feeding Behavior | Hares | Humans | Insect Vectors | Leishmania infantum | Leishmaniasis, Visceral | Phlebotomus | Rabbits | Seasons | Spain | Surveys and Questionnaires | Xenodiagnosis | Disease Outbreaks
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