Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/6939
Micronutrient deficiencies and related factors in school-aged children in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study in Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts, Amhara Regional State
PLoS One. 2014 Dec 29;9(12):e112858
INTRODUCTION: The present study describes the distribution of selected micronutrients and anaemia among school-aged children living in Libo Kemkem and Fogera (Amhara State, Ethiopia), assessing differences by socio-demographic characteristics, health status and dietary habits. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out during May-December 2009. Socio-demographic characteristics, health status and dietary habits were collected. Biomarkers were determined for 764 children. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess micronutrient deficiencies (MD), anaemia, and their association with different factors. RESULTS: More than two thirds of the school-aged children (79.5%) had at least one MD and 40.5% had two or more coexisting micronutrient deficiencies. The most prevalent deficiencies were of zinc (12.5%), folate (13.9%), vit A (29.3%) and vit D (49%). Anaemia occurred in 30.9% of the children. Children living in rural areas were more likely to have vit D insufficiency [OR: 5.9 (3.7-9.5)] but less likely to have folate deficiency [OR: 0.2 (0.1-0.4)] and anaemia [OR: 0.58 (0.35-0.97)]. Splenomegaly was positively associated with folate deficiency and anaemia [OR: 2.77 (1.19-6.48) and 4.91 (2.47-9.75)]. Meat and fish consumption were inversely correlated with zinc and ferritin deficiencies [OR: 0.2 (0.1-0.8) and 0.2 (0.1-0.9)], while oil consumption showed a negative association with anaemia and deficiencies of folate and vitamin A [0.58 (0.3-0.9), OR: 0.5 (0.3-0.9) and 0.6 (0.4-0.9)]. Serum ferritin levels were inversely correlated to the presence of anaemia (p<0.005). CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and vitamin D insufficiency and a moderate prevalence of zinc and folate deficiencies in school-aged children in this area. The inverse association of anaemia and serum ferritin levels may be due to the presence of infectious diseases in the area. To effectively tackle malnutrition, strategies should target not only isolated micronutrient supplementation but also diet diversification.
Adolescent | Anemia | Child | Child Nutrition Disorders | Child, Preschool | Cross-Sectional Studies | Ethiopia | Female | Folic Acid Deficiency | Humans | Male | Micronutrients | Vitamin A Deficiency | Vitamin D Deficiency | Zinc
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