Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/6667
Tetraspanins as Organizers of Antigen-Presenting Cell Function
Front Immunol. 2018; 9:1074
Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) include dendritic cells, monocytes, and B cells. APCs internalize and process antigens, producing immunogenic peptides that enable antigen presentation to T lymphocytes, which provide the signals that trigger T-cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation, and lead to adaptive immune responses. After detection of microbial antigens through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), APCs migrate to secondary lymphoid organs where antigen presentation to T lymphocytes takes place. Tetraspanins are membrane proteins that organize specialized membrane platforms, called tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, which integrate membrane receptors, like PRR and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II), adhesion proteins, and signaling molecules. Importantly, through the modulation of the function of their associated membrane partners, tetraspanins regulate different steps of the immune response. Several tetraspanins can positively or negatively regulate the activation threshold of immune receptors. They also play a role during migration of APCs by controlling the surface levels and spatial arrangement of adhesion molecules and their subsequent intracellular signaling. Finally, tetraspanins participate in antigen processing and are important for priming of naive T cells through the control of T-cell co-stimulation and MHC-II-dependent antigen presentation. In this review, we discuss the role of tetraspanins in APC biology and their involvement in effective immune responses.
tetraspanins | tetraspanin-enriched microdomains | antigen-presenting cells | immune receptors | cell migration | antigen presentation | MHC CLASS-II | PLASMACYTOID DENDRITIC CELLS | HEPATITIS-C VIRUS | T-CELLS | MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION | MEMBRANE MICRODOMAIN | SIGNALING COMPLEXES | PEPTIDE COMPLEXES | DISTINCT SUBSET | DOWN-REGULATION
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