Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/5245
Function and Dynamics of Tetraspanins during Antigen Recognition and Immunological Synapse Formation
Front Immunol. 2016; 6:653
Tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs) are specialized membrane platforms driven by protein protein interactions that integrate membrane receptors and adhesion molecules. Tetraspanins participate in antigen recognition and presentation by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) through the organization of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and their downstream induced signaling, as well as the regulation of MHC-II-peptide trafficking. T lymphocyte activation is triggered upon specific recognition of antigens present on the APC surface during immunological synapse (IS) formation. This dynamic process is characterized by a defined spatial organization involving the compartmentalization of receptors and adhesion molecules in specialized membrane domains that are connected to the underlying cytoskeleton and signaling molecules. Tetraspanins contribute to the spatial organization and maturation of the IS by controlling receptor clustering and local accumulation of adhesion receptors and integrins, their downstream signaling, and linkage to the actin cytoskeleton. This review offers a perspective on the important role of TEMs in the regulation of antigen recognition and presentation and in the dynamics of IS architectural organization.
Tetraspanins | Tetraspanin-enriched microdomains | Adhesion receptors | Immunological synapse | T-cell activation | T-CELL-ACTIVATION | MHC CLASS-II | HEPATITIS-C VIRUS | ADHESION-DEPENDENT ACTIVATION | IMMATURE DENDRITIC CELLS | TRANSMEMBRANE-4 SUPERFAMILY | ENRICHED MICRODOMAINS | INTEGRIN ACTIVATION | IMMUNE SYNAPSE | LIPID RAFTS
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