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dc.contributor.authorCordon-Obras, Carlos 
dc.contributor.authorCano-Ochando, Jordi 
dc.contributor.authorKnapp, Jenny
dc.contributor.authorNebreda, Paloma 
dc.contributor.authorNdong-Mabale, Nicolas
dc.contributor.authorNcogo-Ada, Policarpo Ricardo
dc.contributor.authorNdongo-Asumu, Pedro
dc.contributor.authorNavarro, Miguel
dc.contributor.authorPinto, Joao
dc.contributor.authorBenito, Agustin 
dc.contributor.authorBart, Jean Mathieu
dc.identifier.citationParasit Vectors. 2014; 7: 31
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Luba is one of the four historical foci of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) on Bioko Island, in Equatorial Guinea. Although no human cases have been detected since 1995, T. b. gambiense was recently observed in the vector Glossina palpalis palpalis. The existence of cryptic species within this vector taxon has been previously suggested, although no data are available regarding the evolutionary history of tsetse flies populations in Bioko. METHODS: A phylogenetic analysis of 60 G. p. palpalis from Luba was performed sequencing three mitochondrial (COI, ND2 and 16S) and one nuclear (rDNA-ITS1) DNA markers. Phylogeny reconstruction was performed by Distance Based, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. RESULTS: The COI and ND2 mitochondrial genes were concatenated and revealed 10 closely related haplotypes with a dominant one found in 61.1% of the flies. The sequence homology of the other 9 haplotypes compared to the former ranged from 99.6 to 99.9%. Phylogenetic analysis clearly clustered all island samples with flies coming from the Western African Clade (WAC), and separated from the flies belonging to the Central Africa Clade (CAC), including samples from Mbini and Kogo, two foci of mainland Equatorial Guinea. Consistent with mitochondrial data, analysis of the microsatellite motif present in the ITS1 sequence exhibited two closely related genotypes, clearly divergent from the genotypes previously identified in Mbini and Kogo. CONCLUSIONS: We report herein that tsetse flies populations circulating in Equatorial Guinea are composed of two allopatric subspecies, one insular and the other continental. The presence of these two G. p. palpalis cryptic taxa in Equatorial Guinea should be taken into account to accurately manage vector control strategy, in a country where trypanosomiasis transmission is controlled but not definitively eliminated yet.
dc.description.sponsorshipWe thank Dr Francis Raoul for his statistical assistance with R and Dr Martin Donnelly for his valuable comments. This work has been supported by ‘Fondo de Investigacion Sanitaria (FIS)’ (PI10/01128) and by VI PN de I + D + I 2008–2011, ISCIII -Subdirección General de Redes y Centros de Investigación Cooperativa RD12/0018/0001 and RD12/0018/0015 (RICET). JMB is supported by Miguel Servet Fellowship CP09/00300.
dc.publisherBioMed Central
dc.relation.isversionofPublisher's version
dc.subjectGlossina palpalis palpalis
dc.subjectEquatorial Guinea
dc.titleGlossina palpalis palpalis populations from Equatorial Guinea belong to distinct allopatric clades
dc.rights.licenseAtribución 4.0 Internacional*
dc.contributor.funderFondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias
dc.contributor.funderInstituto de Salud Carlos III - ISCIII
dc.identifier.journalParasites & Vectors
dc.repisalud.centroISCIII::Centro Nacional de Medicina Tropical

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