Recent Submissions

Cellular and humoral functional responses after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination differ longitudinally between naive and subjects recovered from COVID-19 

We have analyzed BNT162b2 vaccine-induced immune responses in naive subjects and individuals recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), both soon after (14 days) and later after (almost 8 months) vaccination. Plasma spike (S)-specific immunoglobulins peak after one vaccine shot in individu...

Immunomics-guided discovery of serum and urine antibodies for diagnosing urogenital schistosomiasis: a biomarker identification study 

Background: Sensitive diagnostics are needed for effective management and surveillance of schistosomiasis so that current transmission interruption goals set by WHO can be achieved. We aimed to screen the Schistosoma haematobium secretome to find antibody biomarkers of schistosome infection, valida...

Considerations for COVID-19 management in reception centers for refugees, asylum seekers and migrants, Spain 2020 

Shortly after the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic, governments around the world were urged to leave no population behind. Following a COVID-19 risk evaluation in a refugee and asylum seekers reception center, in September 2020, we considered the priorities of managing COVID-19 in these setting...

West Nile Virus Vaccination Protects against Usutu Virus Disease in Mice 

West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are mosquito-borne flaviviruses that can cause neuroinvasive disease in humans. WNV and USUV circulate in both Africa and Europe and are closely related. Due to antigenic similarity, WNV-specific antibodies and USUV-specific antibodies have the potential...

Incidence of Histoplasmosis in a Cohort of People with HIV: From Estimations to Reality 

Among people with HIV, histoplasmosis represents an important cause of mortality. Previous studies provided estimates of the disease incidence. Here, we compared those estimates with the results obtained from a screening program implemented in Guatemala, which included histoplasmosis detection for ...

Subinhibitory Concentrations of Clinically-Relevant Antimicrobials Affect Resistance-Nodulation-Division Family Promoter Activity in Acinetobacter baumannii 

Efflux pumps contribute to multidrug resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii due to their ability to expel a wide variety of structurally unrelated compounds. This study aimed to characterize the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of clinically-relevant antibiotics and disinfectants on the promot...

Predicted Epitope Abundance Supports Vaccine-Induced Cytotoxic Protection Against SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern 

The effect of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants on vaccine efficacy is of critical importance. In this study, the potential impact of mutations that facilitate escape from the cytotoxic cellular immune response in these new virus variants for the 551 most abundant HLA class I alleles was analyzed. Compu...

An imported case of vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2, Spain in the context of the ongoing polio Public Health Emergency of International Concern, September 2021 

The monthly retrospective search for unreported acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases conducted as a complementary component of the Spanish AFP surveillance system identified a case of AFP in a child admitted in Spain from Senegal during August 2021. Vaccine-derived poliovirus 2 was identified in the...

Toxoplasmosis en España, análisis de hospitalizaciones durante el período 1997-2018 

[ES] Fundamentos: La toxoplasmosis es una enfermedad infecciosa sistémica. Se contrae principalmente por ingestión de quistes y/o quistes de Toxoplasma gondii o por afectación fetal tras la primoinfección de la madre embarazada (toxoplasmosis congénita). La prevalencia en España presenta una gran v...

Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptomyces and other unusual Actinobacteria clinical isolates in Spain 

Two hundred and eighty-six isolates from human clinical samples were identified between 1996 and 2019 as belonging to 8 families, 19 genera and 88 species of Actinobacteria. The most identified genera were Streptomyces (182 strains from 45 species), Actinomadura (29 strains, 5 species), Nocardiopsi...

ENE-COVID nationwide serosurvey served to characterize asymptomatic infections and to develop a symptom-based risk score to predict COVID-19 

Objectives: To characterize asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections and develop a symptom-based risk score useful in primary healthcare. Study design and setting: Sixty-one thousand ninty-two community-dwelling participants in a nationwide population-based serosurvey completed a questionnaire on COVID-1...

Molecular Characterization of Imported and Autochthonous Dengue in Northeastern Spain 

Dengue is the most significant arbovirus worldwide and a public health threat to non-endemic areas in which Aedes vectors are present. Autochthonous dengue transmission has been reported in several European countries in the last decade. Infected travelers from endemic regions arriving to areas colo...

An Unexpected Case of Disseminated Amebiasis with Cerebral Involvement and Successful Recovery in a Non-Endemic Context 

Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Amebiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. Amebic brain abscesses are a rare form of invasive amebiasis frequently lethal due to the difficulty of its diagnosis and inadequate treat- ment. Cerebral amebiasis po...

Persistent low-Level viremia in persons living with HIV undertreatment: An unresolved status 

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) allows suppressed viremia to reach less than 50 copies/mL in most treated persons living with HIV (PLWH). However, the existence of PLWH that show events of persistent low-level viremia (pLLV) between 50 and 1000 copies/mL and with different virological consequences hav...

Different HCV Exposure Drives Specific miRNA Profile in PBMCs of HIV Patients 

Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are essential players in HIV and HCV infections, as both viruses modulate cellular miRNAs and interact with the miRNA-mediated host response. We aim to analyze the miRNA profile of HIV patients with different exposure to HCV to explore specific signatures in the miRNA profile of...

Serotypes in Adult Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Spain in the Era of Conjugate Vaccines 

We studied changes in serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility in adult pneumococcal pneumonia in Spain (2011-2019). Among 895 pneumococci collected (433 bacteremic [BPP] and 462 non-bacteremic [non-BPP]), serotypes 3 (17%), 19A (10%), 8 (6.7%) and 11A (6.7%) were the most frequent. S...

Hepatitis A Outbreak Characteristics: A Comparison of Regions with Different Vaccination Strategies, Spain 2010-2018 

We compared the cumulative incidence and characteristics of hepatitis A outbreaks in two groups of Spanish autonomous regions according to whether a universal or risk group vaccination strategy was followed. Outbreaks between 2010 and 2018 were analyzed. The cumulative incidence rate of outbreaks w...

Streptococcus pneumoniae: a Plethora of Temperate Bacteriophages With a Role in Host Genome Rearrangement 

Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that infect bacteria. They are the most abundant biological entity on Earth (current estimates suggest there to be perhaps 1031 particles) and are found nearly everywhere. Temperate phages can integrate into the chromosome of their host, and prophages have been f...

Age-Dependent Serotype-Associated Case-Fatality Rate in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in the Autonomous Community of Madrid between 2007 and 2020 

The aim of this study was to investigate the serotype-associated fatality rate in cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the Spanish region of Madrid between 2007 and 2020. Serotyping was performed by Pneumotest Latex and the Quellung reaction using commercial antisera. Case-fatality rate ...

Identification of CRF66_BF, a New HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form of South American Origin 

Circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) are important components of the HIV-1 pandemic. Among 110 reported in the literature, 17 are BF1 intersubtype recombinant, most of which are of South American origin. Among these, all 5 identified in the Southern Cone and neighboring countries, except Brazil, de...