Recent Submissions

Pseudomonas aeruginosa antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, resistance mechanisms and international clonal lineages: update from ESGARS-ESCMID/ISARPAE Group 

Scope: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen considered one of the paradigms of antimicrobial resistance, is among the main causes of hospital-acquired and chronic infections associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This growing threat results from the extraordinar...

Potential selection of antimony and methotrexate cross-resistance in Leishmania infantum circulating strains 

Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) resolution depends on a wide range of factors, including the instauration of an effective treatment coupled to a functional host immune system. Patients with a depressed immune system, like the ones receiving methotrexate (MTX), are at higher risk of developi...

Invasive Fungal Diseases in Adult Patients in Intensive Care Unit (FUNDICU): 2024 consensus definitions from ESGCIP, EFISG, ESICM, ECMM, MSGERC, ISAC, and ISHAM 

Purpose: The aim of this document was to develop standardized research definitions of invasive fungal diseases (IFD) in non-neutropenic, adult patients without classical host factors for IFD, admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Methods: After a systematic assessment of the diagnostic performan...

Clonal chromosomal mosaicism and loss of chromosome Y in elderly men increase vulnerability for SARS-CoV-2 

The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19) had an estimated overall case fatality ratio of 1.38% (pre-vaccination), being 53% higher in males and increasing exponentially with age. Among 9578 individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 in the SCOURGE study...

Interim 2023/24 influenza A vaccine effectiveness: VEBIS European primary care and hospital multicentre studies, September 2023 to January 2024 

Influenza A viruses circulated in Europe from September 2023 to January 2024, with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 predominance. We provide interim 2023/24 influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) estimates from two European studies, covering 10 countries across primary care (EU-PC) and hospital (EU-H) setting...

Hybrid capture shotgun sequencing detected unexpected viruses in the cerebrospinal fluid of children with acute meningitis and encephalitis 

Purpose: Investigation of undiagnosed cases of infectious neurological diseases, especially in the paediatric population, remains a challenge. This study aimed to enhance understanding of viruses in CSF from children with clinically diagnosed meningitis and/or encephalitis (M/ME) of unknown aetiolo...

Infection of Leishmania donovani in Phlebotomus orientalis Sand Flies at Different Microhabitats of a Kala-Azar Endemic Village in Eastern Sudan 

A study was carried out to compare the infection rates of Leishmania donovani in Phlebotomus orientalis sandflies at different microhabitats of a VL endemic village in Gedarif state, Sudan. DNA extracts of 1078 P. orientalis sand fly females sampled by CDC light traps from indoor, outdoor, peri-dom...

Strengthening the genomic surveillance of Francisella tularensis by using culture-free whole-genome sequencing from biological samples 

Introduction: Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious bacterium that causes the zoonotic disease tularemia. The development of genotyping methods, especially those based on whole-genome sequencing (WGS), has recently increased the knowledge on the epidemiology of this disease. However, due to...

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccination Recommendations for Adults Aged 60 Years and Older: The NeumoExperts Prevention Group Position Paper 

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory tract infections in adults, particularly older adults and those with underlying medical conditions. Vaccination has emerged as a potential key strategy to prevent RSV-related morbidity and mortality. This Neumoexperts Prevention (NEP...

Polymorphisms in the human angiotensin converting enzyme gene (ACE) linked to susceptibility of COVID-19 and malaria infections in the Ghanaian population 

Genetic variations in the human angiotensin converting enzyme gene (ACE) influence ACE enzyme expression levels in humans and subsequently influence both communicable and non-communicable disease outcomes. More recently, polymorphisms in this gene have been linked to susceptibility and outcomes of ...

Phenotypic and genetic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis isolates from humans and animals in Spain from 2006 to 2021 

Objectives: While an increase in the levels of MDR in Salmonella enterica sevorar Choleraesuis has been reported in Europe, little is known about the situation in Spain. Therefore, we first aimed to assess the phenotypic resistance profile and to determine the presence of genetic determinants of re...

Molecular Determinants of Drug Resistance and Mutation Patterns in Influenza Viruses Circulating in Poland Across Multiple Epidemic Seasons: Implications for Vaccination Strategies 

Background: According to the WHO, up to 650 000 people die each year from seasonal flu-related respiratory illnesses. The most effective method of fighting the virus is seasonal vaccination. However, if an infection does occur, antiviral medications should be used as soon as possible. No studies of...

Vaccine effectiveness against influenza hospitalisation in adults during the 2022/2023 mixed season of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B circulation, Europe: VEBIS SARI VE hospital network 

We conducted a multicentre hospital-based test-negative case-control study to measure vaccine effectiveness (VE) against PCR-confirmed influenza in adult patients with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) during the 2022/2023 influenza season in Europe. Among 5547 SARI patients ≥18 years, 2963...

The epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in Spain according to surveillance and hospitalization data, 2012-2020 

Background: Before the COVID-19 pandemic, tuberculosis (TB) was the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent. In Spain, TB notifications are registered through the National Epidemiological Surveillance Network (RENAVE). The Minimum Basic Data Set (CMBD) provides information on TB hospi...

Influenza vaccine effectiveness in Europe: Results from the 2022-2023 VEBIS (Vaccine Effectiveness, Burden and Impact Studies) primary care multicentre study 

Background: Influenza A(H3N2) viruses dominated early in the 2022-2023 influenza season in Europe, followed by higher circulation of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and B viruses. The VEBIS primary care network estimated the influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) using a multicentre test-negative study. Mater...

Incipient functional SARS-CoV-2 diversification identified through neural network haplotype maps 

Since its introduction in the human population, SARS-CoV-2 has evolved into multiple clades, but the events in its intrahost diversification are not well understood. Here, we compare three-dimensional (3D) self-organized neural haplotype maps (SOMs) of SARS-CoV-2 from thirty individual nasopharynge...

Hygiene-based measures for the prevention of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women: a systematic review 

Background: Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most frequent congenital infection worldwide causing important sequelae. However, no vaccine or antiviral treatments are currently available, thus interventions are restricted to behavioral measures. The aim of this systematic review was to assess evi...