Recent Submissions

Deciphering the Potential Coding of Human Cytomegalovirus: New Predicted Transmembrane Proteome 

CMV is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals that will benefit from the availability of a vaccine. Despite the efforts made during the last decade, no CMV vaccine is available. An ideal CMV vaccine should elicit a broad immune response against multiple viral anti...

HIV-1 Accessory Proteins Impart a Modest Interferon Response and Upregulate Cell Cycle-Related Genes in Macrophages 

HIV-1 infection of myeloid cells is associated with the induction of an IFN response. How HIV-1 manipulates and subverts the IFN response is of key interest for the design of therapeutics to improve immune function and mitigate immune dysregulation in people living with HIV. HIV-1 accessory genes f...

Effect of the Inoculation Site of Bovine and Avian Purified Protein Derivatives (PPDs) on the Performance of the Intradermal Tuberculin Test in Goats From Tuberculosis-Free and Infected Herds 

The single and comparative intradermal tuberculin (SIT and CIT) tests are used for the ante-mortem diagnosis of caprine tuberculosis (TB). The tuberculin injection site has been associated with a different performance of the test in cattle. In contrast to that required in cattle in Europe (cervical...

Factors affecting the performance of P22 ELISA for the diagnosis of caprine tuberculosis in milk samples 

Caprine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonosis caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Caprine TB eradication programmes are based mainly on intradermal tuberculin tests and slaughterhouse surveillance. However, the use of serological test has been extended as a potential diagn...

Silencing of Opisthorchis viverrini Tetraspanin Gene Expression Results in Reduced Secretion of Extracellular Vesicles 

Inter-phylum transfer of molecular information is exquisitely exemplified in the uptake of parasite extracellular vesicles (EVs) by their target mammalian host tissues. The oriental liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini is the major cause of bile duct cancer in people in Southeast Asia. A major mecha...

Babesia and Theileria Identification in Adult Ixodid Ticks from Tapada Nature Reserve, Portugal 

This study, conducted in a nature reserve in southern Portugal, investigated the frequency and diversity of tick-borne piroplasms in six species of adult ixodid ticks removed from 71 fallow deer (Dama dama) and 12 red deer (Cervus elaphus), collected over the period 2012-2019. The majority of 520 t...

Leishmania infantum UBC1 in Metacyclic Promastigotes from Phlebotomus perniciosus, a Vaccine Candidate for Zoonotic Visceral Leishmaniasis 

Leishmania parasites cause outstanding levels of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries in tropical and subtropical regions. Numerous gene expression profiling studies have been performed comparing different Leishmania species' life-cycles and stage forms in regard to their distinct i...

Pediatric Chagas disease in the non-endemic area of Madrid: A fifteen-year review (2004-2018) 

Background: Chagas disease (CD) has become an emerging global health problem in association with the immigration of individuals from endemic areas (in LatinAmerica) to other countries.Spain is the country in Europe with the highest number of CD cases. Concerning pediatric CD, treatment is not only ...

Role of IL-17 in Morphogenesis and Dissemination of Cryptococcus neoformans during Murine Infection 

Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that can form Titan cells in the lungs, which are fungal cells of abnormally large size. The factors that regulate Titan cell formation in vivo are still unknown, although an increased proportion of these fungal cells of infected mice correlates with in...

Predicted HLA Class I and Class II Epitopes From Licensed Vaccines Are Largely Conserved in New SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant of Concern 

The potential effect of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants on vaccine efficacy is an issue of critical importance. In this study, the possible impact of mutations that facilitate virus escape from the cytotoxic and the helper cellular immune responses in the new SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant of concern was ...

Plasma Membrane Phosphatidylinositol-4-Phosphate Is Not Necessary for Candida albicans Viability yet Is Key for Cell Wall Integrity and Systemic Infection 

Phosphatidylinositol phosphates are key phospholipids with a range of regulatory roles, including membrane trafficking and cell polarity. Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate [PI(4)P] at the Golgi apparatus is required for the budding-to-filamentous-growth transition in the human-pathogenic fungus Cand...

Evaluation of LAMP for the diagnosis of Loa loa infection in dried blood spots compared to PCR-based assays and microscopy 

Background: Loa loa is a filarial species found exclusively in West and Central Africa. Microscopy is the traditional diagnosis method for human loiasis. Several molecular methods have developed as an alternative approach for identification of L. loa filarial parasites. Objectives: The aim of this ...

Early innate immune response triggered by the human respiratory syncytial virus and its regulation by ubiquitination/deubiquitination processes 

The human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) causes severe lower respiratory tract infections in infants and the elderly. An exuberant inadequate immune response is behind most of the pathology caused by the HRSV. The main targets of HRSV infection are the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract,...

Effect of the topical administration of corticosteroids and tuberculin pre-sensitisation on the diagnosis of tuberculosis in goats 

Background: Caprine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonosis caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Caprine TB control and eradication programmes have traditionally been based on intradermal tuberculin tests and slaughterhouse surveillance. However, this strategy has limitations...

Plasma miRNA profile at COVID-19 onset predicts severity status and mortality 

Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have a crucial role in regulating immune response against infectious diseases, showing changes early in disease onset and before the detection of the pathogen. Thus, we aimed to analyze the plasma miRNA profile at COVID-19 onset to identify miRNAs as early prognostic ...

Cyst detection and viability assessment of Balantioides coli in environmental samples: Current status and future needs 

The ciliate Balantioides coli is a human enteric parasite that can cause life-threatening infections. It is a food- and waterborne parasite, with cysts being the infective stage. Despite its importance as a potential pathogen, few reports have investigated its presence in environmental samples, and...

Surveillance of leishmaniasis cases from 15 European centres, 2014 to 2019: a retrospective analysis 

Background: Surveillance of human leishmaniasis in Europe is mostly limited to country-specific information from autochthonous infections in the southern part. As at the end of 2021, no integrated analysis has been performed for cases seen across centres in different European countries.AimTo provid...

Predicted impact of the viral mutational landscape on the cytotoxic response against SARS-CoV-2 

The massive assessment of immune evasion due to viral mutations that increase COVID-19 susceptibility can be computationally facilitated. The adaptive cytotoxic T response is critical during primary infection and the generation of long-term protection. Here, potential HLA class I epitopes in the SA...

DBP rs7041 and DHCR7 rs3829251 are Linked to CD4+ Recovery in HIV Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy 

Background: The lack of the recovery of CD4+ T-cells (CD4+ recovery) among immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not well known. We aimed to analyze the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) underlying vitamin D metabolism and the CD4...