Recent Submissions

Transcriptomic Evidence of the Immune Response Activation in Individuals With Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Dominant 2 (LGMDD2) Contributes to Resistance to HIV-1 Infection 

LGMDD2 is a rare form of muscular dystrophy characterized by one of the three heterozygous deletions described within the TNPO3 gene that result in the addition of a 15-amino acid tail in the C-terminus.TNPO3 is involved in the nuclear import of splicing factors and acts as a host cofactor for HIV-...

Baseline and time-updated factors in preclinical development of anionic dendrimers as successful anti-HIV-1 vaginal microbicides 

Although a wide variety of topical microbicides provide promising in vitro and in vivo efficacy, most of them failed to prevent sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in human clinical trials. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models must be optimized, considering the knowl...

HCV eradication with DAAs differently affects HIV males and females: A whole miRNA sequencing characterization 

Gender-specific consequences after HCV eradication are unexplored. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in the immune response against viral infections. However, few have highlighted miRNA role in sex-biased disease or therapy response. We aim to assess gender differences reflected in the miRNA e...

The Global Meningococcal Initiative meeting on prevention of meningococcal disease worldwide: Epidemiology, surveillance, hypervirulent strains, antibiotic resistance and high-risk populations 

Introduction: The 2018 Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) meeting focused on evolving invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) epidemiology, surveillance, and protection strategies worldwide, with emphasis on emerging antibiotic resistance and protection of high-risk populations. The GMI is comprise...

Role of endocytosis and trans-endocytosis in ICOS costimulator-induced downmodulation of the ICOS Ligand 

The interaction between the T-lymphocyte costimulatory molecule ICOS and its ligand (ICOS-L) is needed for efficient immune responses, but expression levels are tightly controlled, as altered expression of ICOS or ICOS-L may lead to immunodeficiency, or favor autoimmune diseases and tumor growth. U...

Genomic surveillance of enterovirus associated with aseptic meningitis cases in southern Spain, 2015-2018 

New circulating Enterovirus (EV) strains often emerge through recombination. Upsurges of recombinant non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) associated with neurologic manifestations such as EVA71 or Echovirus 30 (E30) are a growing public health concern in Europe. Only a few complete genomes of EVs circul...

Transgenesis in parasitic helminths: a brief history and prospects for the future 

Helminth infections impact the health of hundreds of millions of persons globally and also cause important economic losses in livestock farming. Methodological limitations as well as the low attention given to the study of helminths have impacted biological research and, thus, the procurement of ac...

Long-Term Changes of Inflammatory Biomarkers in Individuals on Suppressive Three-Drug or Two-Drug Antiretroviral Regimens 

Background: Because inflammation is associated with mortality and has been linked to HIV transcription in lymphoid tissues during ART, it is necessary to address the long-term effects of switching 3-drug (3DR) to 2-drug regimens (2DR) on inflammation. Methods: Nested study in the Spanish AIDS Resea...

Isolation of Functional SARS-CoV-2 Antigen-Specific T-Cells with Specific Viral Cytotoxic Activity for Adoptive Therapy of COVID-19 

In order to demonstrate the feasibility of preparing clinical-grade SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cells from convalescent donors and the ability of these cells to neutralize the virus in vitro, we used blood collected from two COVID-19 convalescent donors (before and after vaccination) that was stimulated ...

Epidemiology of Echovirus 30 Infections Detected in a University Hospital in Catalonia, Spain, in 1995-2020 

There is a growing interest in echovirus 30 (E30), an enterovirus responsible for neurological disease and hospitalization. There are multiple studies of outbreaks, but few that study the epidemiology over long periods of time. Our study aims to describe the clinical, epidemiological and microbiolo...

COVID-19 Associated Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CAPA): Hospital or Home Environment as a Source of Life-Threatening Aspergillus fumigatus Infection? 

Most cases of invasive aspergillosis are caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, whose conidia are ubiquitous in the environment. Additionally, in indoor environments, such as houses or hospitals, conidia are frequently detected too. Hospital-acquired aspergillosis is usually associated with airborne fung...

Is serology a realistic approach for monitoring red deer tuberculosis in the field? 

Tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic mycobacterial infection with great importance in human health, animal production, and wildlife conservation. Although an ambitious eradication programme in cattle has been implemented for decades, TB-free status has not yet been achieved in most of Spain, where anima...

Sulfur Metabolism as a Promising Source of New Antifungal Targets 

Fungal infections are a growing threat to human health. Despite their clinical relevance, there is a surprisingly limited availability of clinically approved antifungal agents, which is seriously aggravated by the recent appearance and fast spread of drug resistance. It is therefore clear that ther...

Emergence of Progressive Mutations in SARS-CoV-2 From a Hematologic Patient With Prolonged Viral Replication 

We documented a hematologic patient with prolonged SARS-CoV-2 viral replication in whom emergence of viral mutations was documented after the consecutive use of antivirals and convalescent plasma. The virus detected in the last of 12 clinical samples (day 237) had accumulated 22 changes in amino ac...

Evaluation of five diagnostic methods for Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Amhara National Regional State, northwest Ethiopia 

Background: Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal parasite that can cause chronic infection, hyperinfection and/or a dissemination syndrome in humans. The use of techniques targeting ova fails to detect S. stercoralis, as only larvae of the parasite are excreted in faeces. Due to the absence o...

Cross-Recognition of SARS-CoV-2 B-Cell Epitopes with Other Betacoronavirus Nucleoproteins 

The B and T lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system are important for the control of most viral infections, including COVID-19. Identification of epitopes recognized by these cells is fundamental for understanding how the immune system detects and removes pathogens, and for antiviral vaccine desi...

The role of PemIK (PemK/PemI) type II TA system from Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains in lytic phage infection 

Since their discovery, toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have captivated the attention of many scientists. Recent studies have demonstrated that TA systems play a key role in phage inhibition. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the PemIK (PemK/PemI) type II TA system in phage in...

Molecular characterization of enterovirus detected in cerebrospinal fluid and wastewater samples in Monastir, Tunisia, 2014-2017 

Background: Enteroviruses (EVs) are considered the main causative agents responsible for aseptic meningitis worldwide. This study was conducted in the Monastir region of Tunisia in order to know the prevalence of EV infections in children with meningitis symptoms. Detected EV types were compared to...

Structure-based design of prefusion-stabilized human metapneumovirus fusion proteins 

The human metapneumovirus (hMPV) fusion (F) protein is essential for viral entry and is a key target of neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development. The prefusion conformation is thought to be the optimal vaccine antigen, but previously described prefusion F proteins expressed poorly and were n...

Immunoescape of HIV-1 in Env-EL9 CD8 + T cell response restricted by HLA-B*14:02 in a Non progressor who lost twenty-seven years of HIV-1 control 

Background: Long-Term Non-Progressors (LTNPs) are untreated Human Immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected individuals able to control disease progression for prolonged periods. However, the LTNPs status is temporary, as viral load increases followed by decreases in CD4 + T-cell counts. Contr...