El Centro Nacional de Microbiología (CNM) es uno de los centros pertenecientes al Instituto de Salud Carlos III que proporciona apoyo científico-técnico a la Administración General del Estado, a las Comunidades Autónomas y al Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS), tal y como se recoge en La Ley General de Sanidad (Ley 14/1986, de 25 de abril) y el Estatuto del Instituto de Salud Carlos III (RD 375/2001, de 6 abril y su posterior reforma, RD 1672/2009, de 6 de noviembre). La función específica del CNM es el control de las enfermedades infecciosas para lo que ofrece servicios de diagnóstico y referencia, manteniendo además programas de investigación, tanto básica como orientada, relacionados con la prevención, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de estas enfermedades. Dispone de un sistema de gestión de calidad conforme a la norma UNE-EN ISO 9001, certificado por AENOR, para la recepción de muestras biológicas, así como varias técnicas y servicios acreditados por ENAC según la norma UNE-EN ISO 15189.

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Identification of Usutu Virus Africa 3 Lineage in a Survey of Mosquitoes and Birds from Urban Areas of Western Spain 

Usutu virus (USUV) is an emerging zoonotic arbovirus that has caused an increasing number of animal and human cases in Europe in recent years. Understanding the vector species and avian hosts involved in the USUV enzootic cycle in an area of active circulation is vital to anticipate potential outbr...

Starkeya nomas sp. nov., a prosthecate and budding bacterium isolated from an immunocompromized patient 

Strain HF14-78462T is an environmental bacterium found in clinical samples from an immunocompromized patient in 2014 at Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe (Valencia, Spain). Phenotypically, strain HF14-78462T cells were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-spore forming and non-motile small rods...

Re-Emergence of a West Nile Virus (WNV) Variant in South Spain with Rapid Spread Capacity 

West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito vector-borne zoonosis with an increasing incidence in Europe that has become a public health concern. In Spain, although local circulation has been known for decades, until 2020, when a large outbreak occurred, West Nile Virus cases were scarce and mostly occurre...

HCV screening based on dried blood samples and linkage to care in people who use drugs: A prospective study 

Background: The burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people who use drugs (PWUDs) is considerable. We aimed to screen for HCV infection using the fingerstick dried blood spot (DBS) test and to describe the cascade of hepatitis C care among PWUDs in Madrid, Spain. We also evaluated the ...

Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2018 

In 2018, the order Mononegavirales was expanded by inclusion of 1 new genus and 12 novel species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) and summarizes additional taxonomic proposals that m...

Antibody levels to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in mothers and children from delivery to six months later 

Introduction: Pregnant women are vulnerable to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein protect from severe disease. This study analyzes the antibody titers to SARS-CoV-2 S protein in pregnant women and th...

High SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load and Low CCL5 Expression Levels in the Upper Respiratory Tract Are Associated With COVID-19 Severity 

Mucosal immune response in the upper respiratory tract is crucial for initial control of viral replication, clearance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We analyzed SARS-CoV-2 RNA load and expression of selected i...

Influence of Respiratory Syncytial Virus F Glycoprotein Conformation on Induction of Protective Immune Responses 

Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) vaccine development has received new impetus from structure-based studies of its main protective antigen, the fusion (F) glycoprotein. Three soluble forms of F have been described: monomeric, trimeric prefusion, and trimeric postfusion. Most human neutralizi...

A monomeric uncleaved respiratory syncytial virus F antigen retains prefusion-specific neutralizing epitopes 

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading infectious cause of severe respiratory disease in infants and a major cause of respiratory illness in the elderly. There remains an unmet vaccine need despite decades of research. Insufficient potency, homogeneity, and stability of previous RSV fusio...

Neutralizing antibodies against the preactive form of respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein offer unique possibilities for clinical intervention 

Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most important viral agent of pediatric respiratory infections worldwide. The only specific treatment available today is a humanized monoclonal antibody (Palivizumab) directed against the F glycoprotein, administered prophylactically to children at ve...

Residues of the human metapneumovirus fusion (F) protein critical for its strain-related fusion phenotype: implications for the virus replication cycle 

The paramyxovirus F protein promotes fusion of the viral and cell membranes for virus entry, as well as cell-cell fusion for syncytium formation. Most paramyxovirus F proteins are triggered at neutral pH to initiate membrane fusion. Previous studies, however, demonstrated that human metapneumovirus...

Low-pH-induced membrane fusion mediated by human metapneumovirus F protein is a rare, strain-dependent phenomenon 

Membrane fusion promoted by human metapneumovirus (HMPV) fusion (F) protein was suggested to require low pH (R. M. Schowalter, S. E. Smith, and R. E. Dutch, J. Virol. 80:10931-10941, 2006). Using prototype F proteins representing the four HMPV genetic lineages, we detected low-pH-dependent fusion o...

Global guideline for the diagnosis and management of the endemic mycoses: an initiative of the European Confederation of Medical Mycology in cooperation with the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology 

The global burden of the endemic mycoses (blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, emergomycosis, histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, sporotrichosis, and talaromycosis) continues to rise yearly and these infectious diseases remain a leading cause of patient morbidity and mortality worldwide. Manageme...

Roles of the multiplex real-time PCR assay and β-D-glucan in a high-risk population for intra-abdominal candidiasis (IAC) 

Multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (MRT-PCR) using blood can improve the diagnosis of intra-abdominal candidiasis (IAC). We prospectively studied 39 patients with suspected IAC in the absence of previous antifungal therapy. Blood cultures, MRT-PCR, and β-D-glucan (BDG) in serum were performed in ...

A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry reference database for the identification of Histoplasma capsulatum 

The isolation of the pathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum from cultures together with the visualization of typical intracellular yeast in tissues are the gold standard methods for diagnosis of histoplasmosis. However, cultures are time-consuming, require level 3 containment and experienced pers...

African Histoplasmosis in HIV-Negative Patients, Kimpese, Democratic Republic of the Congo 

We describe a case series of histoplasmosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii during July 2011-January 2014 in Kimpese, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Cases were confirmed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcription PCR. All patients were HIV negative. Putativ...

Proteomics Analysis Reveals That Structural Proteins of the Virion Core and Involved in Gene Expression Are the Main Source for HLA Class II Ligands in Vaccinia Virus-Infected Cells 

Protective cellular and humoral immune responses require previous recognition of viral antigenic peptides complexed with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules on the surface of the antigen presenting cells. The HLA class II-restricted immune response is important for the control and the ...