El Centro Nacional de Microbiología (CNM) es uno de los centros pertenecientes al Instituto de Salud Carlos III que proporciona apoyo científico-técnico a la Administración General del Estado, a las Comunidades Autónomas y al Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS), tal y como se recoge en La Ley General de Sanidad (Ley 14/1986, de 25 de abril) y el Estatuto del Instituto de Salud Carlos III (RD 375/2001, de 6 abril y su posterior reforma, RD 1672/2009, de 6 de noviembre). La función específica del CNM es el control de las enfermedades infecciosas para lo que ofrece servicios de diagnóstico y referencia, manteniendo además programas de investigación, tanto básica como orientada, relacionados con la prevención, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de estas enfermedades. Dispone de un sistema de gestión de calidad conforme a la norma UNE-EN ISO 9001, certificado por AENOR, para la recepción de muestras biológicas, así como varias técnicas y servicios acreditados por ENAC según la norma UNE-EN ISO 15189. En 2013 el CNM reestructuró sus laboratorios, agrupándolos en cinco Áreas funcionales de manera que los laboratorios o unidades afines estén englobados en una misma estructura.

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A Rapid Screening Program for Histoplasmosis, Tuberculosis, and Cryptococcosis Reduces Mortality in HIV Patients from Guatemala. 

Opportunistic infections (OIs) and advanced HIV disease (AHD) contribute to HIV-related mortality. Here, we analyzed the situation of AHD and OIs in a cohort of newly diagnosed HIV patients from Guatemala. We included 2127 adult patients from 13 facilities across the country during 2017 to 2018. Pa...

Molecular Characterisation of Cryptosporidium spp. in Mozambican Children Younger than 5 Years Enrolled in a Matched Case-Control Study on the Aetiology of Diarrhoeal Disease. 

Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of childhood diarrhoea and associated physical and cognitive impairment in low-resource settings. Cryptosporidium-positive faecal samples (n = 190) from children aged ≤ 5 years enrolled in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in Mozambique detected by ELISA...

Leishmaniasis visceral subclínica en 123 inpiduos de un cantón de la provincia Caranavi-La Paz: study in 123 inpiduals 

[ES] En 1999, en el Hospital del Niño se registró un nuevo caso de Leishmaniasis visceral sobre un niño de dos años proveniente del cantón de Taipiplaya (Provincia Caranavi). Por este motivo se realiza en este cantón una evaluación transversal de la leishmaniasis visceral mediante pruebas serológic...

Differential Diagnosis of Fungal Pneumonias vs. Tuberculosis in AIDS Patients by Using Two New Molecular Methods. 

Opportunistic fungal pneumonias (OFP) are the main cause of death in AIDS patients worldwide. Diagnosis of these infections is often late as tuberculosis (TB) is frequently the first suspicion. In addition, diagnostic tools have limitations and are unavailable in disadvantaged regions. To perform t...

Análisis de un brote de meningitis viral en la provincia de Tucumán, Argentina 

[ES] Confirmar la existencia de un brote de meningitis viral en 1996 en la provincia de Tucumán, Argentina, y estudiar sus características epidemiológicas. Se analizó información obtenida del Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica (SINAVE) del Ministerio de Salud de Argentina para el período...

Mechanisms of HIV-1 evasion to the antiviral activity of chemokine CXCL12 indicate potential links with pathogenesis. 

HIV-1 infects CD4 T lymphocytes (CD4TL) through binding the chemokine receptors CCR5 or CXCR4. CXCR4-using viruses are considered more pathogenic, linked to accelerated depletion of CD4TL and progression to AIDS. However, counterexamples to this paradigm are common, suggesting heterogeneity in the ...

Inoculation of the Leishmania infantum HSP70-II Null Mutant Induces Long-Term Protection against L. amazonensis Infection in BALB/c Mice. 

Leishmania amazonensis parasites are etiological agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World. BALB/c mice are highly susceptible to L. amazonensis challenge due to their inability to mount parasite-dependent IFN-γ-mediated responses. Here, we analyzed the capacity of a single administration ...

Susceptibility Test For Fungi: Clinical And Laboratorial Correlations In Medical Mycology 

[EN] During recent decades, antifungal susceptibility testing has become standardized and nowadays has the same role of the antibacterial susceptibility testing in microbiology laboratories. American and European standards have been developed, as well as equivalent commercial systems which are more...

Circulación de un linaje diferente del virus dengue 2 genotipo América / Asia en la región amazónica de Perú, 2010 

Our objective was to determine the genotype of the dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) that circulated in the Amazon region of Peru between November 2010 and January 2011. We analyzed eight samples collected during dengue surveillance activities in the cities of Iquitos, Yurimaguas, Trujillo, Tarapoto and...

Substantial Influence of ERAP2 on the HLA-B*40:02 Peptidome: Implications for HLA-B*27-Negative Ankylosing Spondylitis. 

HLA-B*40:02 is one of a few major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) independently of HLA-B*27. The endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2), an enzyme that process MHC-I ligands and preferentially trims N-terminal basic residues, ...

Assessing the burden of paediatric influenza in Europe: the European Paediatric Influenza Analysis (EPIA) project. 

The European Paediatric Influenza Analysis (EPIA) project is a multi-country project that was created to collect, analyse and present data regarding the paediatric influenza burden in European countries, with the purpose of providing the necessary information to make evidence-based decisions regard...

An Immunological Approach to the Biocompatibility of Mesoporous SiO2-CaO Nanospheres. 

Mesoporous bioactive glass nanospheres (NanoMBGs) have high potential for clinical applications. However, the impact of these nanoparticles on the immune system needs to be addressed. In this study, the biocompatibility of SiO2-CaO NanoMBGs was evaluated on different mouse immune cells, including s...

Role of the tumor suppressor ARF in macrophage polarization: Enhancement of the M2 phenotype in ARF-deficient mice. 

The ARF locus is frequently inactivated in human cancer. The oncosuppressor ARF has indeed been described as a general sensor for different situation of cellular stress. We have previously demonstrated that ARF deficiency severely impairs inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo, establishing a ...

Tumor suppressor ARF: The new player of innate immunity. 

ARF (alternative reading frame) is one of the most important tumor regulator playing critical roles in controlling tumor initiation and progression. Recently, we have demonstrated a novel and unexpected role for ARF as modulator of inflammatory responses.

Active and adaptive Legionella CRISPR-Cas reveals a recurrent challenge to the pathogen. 

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats with CRISPR-associated gene (CRISPR-Cas) systems are widely recognized as critical genome defense systems that protect microbes from external threats such as bacteriophage infection. Several isolates of the intracellular pathogen Legionella ...

Spread of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 8-ST63 multidrug-resistant recombinant Clone, Spain. 

Since 2004, a total of 131 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae multidrug-resistant invasive serotype 8 have been detected in Spain. These isolates showed resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin. All isolates were obtained from adult patients and shared a common gen...

Some pneumococcal serotypes are more frequently associated with relapses of acute exacerbations in COPD patients. 

To analyze the role of the capsular type in pneumococci causing relapse and reinfection episodes of acute exacerbation in COPD patients. A total of 79 patients with 116 recurrent episodes of acute exacerbations caused by S. pneumoniae were included into this study (1995-2010). A relapse episode wa...

Levofloxacin treatment failure in Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia. 

We describe the first case of failure of oral levofloxacin treatment of community-acquired pneumonia caused by Haemophilus influenzae. The strain showed cross-resistance to fluoroquinolones and carried four mutations in quinolone resistance-determining regions of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV gen...

An Immunological Approach to the Biocompatibility of Mesoporous SiO2-CaO Nanospheres. 

Mesoporous bioactive glass nanospheres (NanoMBGs) have high potential for clinical applications. However, the impact of these nanoparticles on the immune system needs to be addressed. In this study, the biocompatibility of SiO2-CaO NanoMBGs was evaluated on different mouse immune cells, including s...

A Conserved GPG-Motif in the HIV-1 Nef Core Is Required for Principal Nef-Activities. 

To find out new determinants required for Nef activity we performed a functional alanine scanning analysis along a discrete but highly conserved region at the core of HIV-1 Nef. We identified the GPG-motif, located at the 121-137 region of HIV-1 NL4.3 Nef, as a novel protein signature strictly requ...