Recent Submissions

Quantifying Overlapping Forms of Malnutrition Across Latin America: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of Prevalence Estimates 

Estimating the prevalence of double burden of malnutrition (DBM) is challenging in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region where various DBM typologies (e.g., obesity and stunting) are heterogeneous and estimates are scattered across literature This study aimed to assess the prevalence of DBM...

Arsenic Exposure and Epigenetic Aging: The Association with Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality in the Strong Heart Study 

Background: Inorganic arsenic (As) may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality through accelerated aging, which can be estimated using epigenetic-based measures. Objectives: We evaluated three DNA methylation-based aging measures (PhenoAge, GrimAge, DunedinPACE) (e...

Nutrition supplementation plus standard of care versus standard of care alone or standard of care plus unconditional cash transfer in the prevention of chronic malnutrition in Southern Angola: study protocol for the MuCCUA study, a cluster randomized controlled trial 

Background: Chronic malnutrition is a condition associated with negative impacts on physical and cognitive development. It is multi-causal and can start very early in life, already in utero, thus it is especially challenging to find appropriate interventions to tackle it. The government of Angola i...

Interim 2023/24 influenza A vaccine effectiveness: VEBIS European primary care and hospital multicentre studies, September 2023 to January 2024 

Influenza A viruses circulated in Europe from September 2023 to January 2024, with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 predominance. We provide interim 2023/24 influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) estimates from two European studies, covering 10 countries across primary care (EU-PC) and hospital (EU-H) setting...

Hybrid capture shotgun sequencing detected unexpected viruses in the cerebrospinal fluid of children with acute meningitis and encephalitis 

Purpose: Investigation of undiagnosed cases of infectious neurological diseases, especially in the paediatric population, remains a challenge. This study aimed to enhance understanding of viruses in CSF from children with clinically diagnosed meningitis and/or encephalitis (M/ME) of unknown aetiolo...

Vaccine effectiveness against influenza hospitalisation in adults during the 2022/2023 mixed season of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B circulation, Europe: VEBIS SARI VE hospital network 

We conducted a multicentre hospital-based test-negative case-control study to measure vaccine effectiveness (VE) against PCR-confirmed influenza in adult patients with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) during the 2022/2023 influenza season in Europe. Among 5547 SARI patients ≥18 years, 2963...

The epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in Spain according to surveillance and hospitalization data, 2012-2020 

Background: Before the COVID-19 pandemic, tuberculosis (TB) was the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent. In Spain, TB notifications are registered through the National Epidemiological Surveillance Network (RENAVE). The Minimum Basic Data Set (CMBD) provides information on TB hospi...

Causal mediation for uncausally related mediators in the context of survival analysis 

Objective: The study of the potential intermediate effect of several variables on the association between an exposure and a time-to-event outcome is a question of interest in epidemiologic research. However, to our knowledge, no tools have been developed for the evaluation of multiple correlated me...

Effectiveness of the adapted bivalent mRNA COVID-19 vaccines against hospitalisation in individuals aged ≥ 60 years during the Omicron XBB lineage-predominant period: VEBIS SARI VE network, Europe, February to August, 2023 

We conducted a multicentre hospital-based test-negative case-control study to measure the effectiveness of adapted bivalent COVID-19 mRNA vaccines against PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during the Omicron XBB lineage-predominant period in patients aged ≥ 60 years with severe acute respiratory i...

Exposure to residential traffic and trajectories of unhealthy ageing: results from a nationally-representative cohort of older adults 

Background: Traffic exposure has been associated with biomarkers of increased biological ageing, age-related chronic morbidities, and increased respiratory, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality. Whether it is associated with functional impairments and unhealthy ageing trajectories is unknown. Me...

Epidemiology of reported cases of leptospirosis in the EU/EEA, 2010 to 2021 

Background:Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Humans are infected by exposure to animal urine or urine-contaminated environments. Although disease incidence is lower in Europe compared with tropical regions, there have been reports of an increase in lept...

Effectiveness and safety of bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide in HIV late presenters 

Objectives: The efficacy of BIC/FTC/TAF in HIV late presenters initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) has not been sufficiently evaluated. Methods: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of BIC/FTC/TAF compared to other first-line antiretroviral regimens in treatmen...

Dynamics of the double burden of malnutrition in Guatemala: a secondary data analysis of the demographic and health surveys from 1998-2015 

Objective: We estimated the prevalence and time trends of the double burden of malnutrition (DBM) in Guatemala and explored its occurrence based on socio-demographic factors. Study design: This was a secondary data analysis using information from four Demographic and Health Surveys covering the per...

Circadian rhythm disruption and retinal dysfunction: a bidirectional link in Alzheimer's disease? 

Dysfunction in circadian rhythms is a common occurrence in patients with Alzheimer's disease. A predominant function of the retina is circadian synchronization, carrying information to the brain through the retinohypothalamic tract, which projects to the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Notably, Alzheimer'...

Subthalamic stimulation has acute psychotropic effects and improves neuropsychiatric fluctuations in Parkinson's disease 

Background: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is a well-established treatment for motor complications in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, its effects on neuropsychiatric symptoms remain disputed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of STN-DBS on neuropsychiatric s...

Relative vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19 hospitalisation in persons aged ≥ 65 years: results from a VEBIS network, Europe, October 2021 to July 2023 

To monitor relative vaccine effectiveness (rVE) against COVID-19-related hospitalisation of the first, second and third COVID-19 booster (vs complete primary vaccination), we performed monthly Cox regression models using retrospective cohorts constructed from electronic health registries in eight E...

Estimation of Improvements in Mortality in Spectrum Among Adults With HIV Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in High-Income Countries 

Introduction: Mortality rates for people living with HIV (PLHIV) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in high-income countries continue to decline. We compared mortality rates among PLHIV on ART in Europe for 2016-2020 with Spectrum's estimates. Methods: The AIDS Impact Module in Spectrum is a compartme...

Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) topsoil levels and incidence of childhood leukemias 

There are few well-established risk factors for childhood leukemias. While the frequency of childhood leukemias might be partially attributable to some diseases (accounting for a small fraction of cases) or ionizing radiation, the role of heavy metals has not been assessed. The objective of our stu...

Occupation, occupational exposures and mammographic density in Spanish women 

Introduction: Mammographic density (MD), the proportion of radiologically dense breast tissue, is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Our objective is to investigate the influence of occupations and occupational exposure to physical, chemical, and microbiological agents on MD in Spanish premeno...

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicide mortality in Spain: Differences by sex and age 

Background: Variations in suicide following the initial COVID-19 pandemic outbreak were heterogeneous across space, over time, and across population subgroup. Whether suicide has increased during the pandemic in Spain, a major initial COVID-19 hotspot, remains unclear, and no study has examined dif...