Now showing items 21-40 of 1088

    Preventing chronic malnutrition in children under 2 years in rural Angola (MuCCUA trial): protocol for the economic evaluation of a three-arm community cluster randomised controlled trial 

    Introduction: Chronic malnutrition is a serious problem in southern Angola with a prevalence of 49.9% and 37.2% in the provinces of Huila and Cunene, respectively. The MuCCUA (Mother and Child Chronic Undernutrition in Angola) trial is a community-based randomised controlled trial (c-RCT) which aim...

    Investigating Local Patterns of Mumps Virus Circulation, Using a Combination of Molecular Tools 

    Mumps is a vaccine-preventable disease caused by the mumps virus (MuV). However, MuV has re-emerged in many countries with high vaccine coverage. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends molecular surveillance based on sequencing of the small hydrophobic (SH) gene. Additionally, the combined ...

    Acceptance and socioeconomic inequalities in meningococcal B vaccination in the community of Madrid prior to its inclusion in the immunization schedule 

    [EN] Introduction: The main preventive measure against invasive meningococcal disease is vaccination. The aim of our study was to evaluate the acceptability of the meningococcal B (MenB) vaccine and socioeconomic inequalities in the access to the vaccine in the Community of Madrid in the period pri...

    Traffic Density Exposure, Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Plasma Metabolomics in a Population-Based Sample: The Hortega Study 

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) generates oxidative stress, with downstream effects at the metabolic level. Human studies of traffic density and metabolomic markers, however, are rare. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional association between traffic ...

    Tuberculosis incidence in foreign-born people residing in European countries in 2020 

    Background: European-specific policies for tuberculosis (TB) elimination require identification of key populations that benefit from TB screening. Aim: We aimed to identify groups of foreign-born individuals residing in European countries that benefit most from targeted TB prevention screening. Met...

    Prevalence of chronic HCV infection in EU/EEA countries in 2019 using multiparameter evidence synthesis 

    Background: Epidemiological data are crucial to monitoring progress towards the 2030 Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) elimination targets. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of chronic HCV infection (cHCV) in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) countries in 2019. Methods: Multi-paramete...

    Multimorbidity, social determinants and intersectionality in chronic patients. Results from the EpiChron Cohort 

    Background: Multimorbidity is influenced in an interconnected way, both in extent and nature, by the social determinants of health. We aimed at implementing an intersectional approach to analyse the association of multimorbidity with five important axes of social inequality (i.e. gender, age, ethni...

    Cambios en el abandono del consumo de tabaco en España, 1987-2020 

    [ES] Introducción: El objetivo del estudio fue estimar y describir la evolución del abandono del consumo de tabaco en España desde 1987 hasta 2020, según las principales características sociodemográficas. Material y Método: Análisis de la serie histórica de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y la Encues...

    Plant-based diets and risk of frailty in community-dwelling older adults: the Seniors-ENRICA-1 cohort 

    Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that leads to increased risk of hospitalization, disability, and death. The effect of plant-based diets defined by the quality of their plant foods is unclear. Our objective is to study the association between two plant-based diet indices and the occurrence of frailt...

    Urinary Phthalate Metabolites and Slow Walking Speed in the Korean Elderly Environmental Panel II Study 

    Background: Previous epidemiological studies have suggested that phthalate exposure may contribute to neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disorders and decreased muscle strength and bone mass, all of which may be associated with reduced physical performance. Walking speed is a reliable assessment to...

    Association between a Mediterranean lifestyle and growth differentiation factor 15: The seniors ENRICA-2 cohort 

    Background: Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15) is a marker of inflammation and oxidative stress that has been associated with multiple age-related chronic diseases. Since lifestyle is key for preventing these adverse health outcomes, we examined the association between a Mediterranean lifest...

    Monitoring COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19 hospitalisation and death using electronic health registries in ≥65 years old population in six European countries, October 2021 to November 2022 

    Background: Within the ECDC-VEBIS project, we prospectively monitored vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19 hospitalisation and COVID-19-related death using electronic health registries (EHR), between October 2021 and November 2022, in community-dwelling residents aged 65-79 and ≥80 years in ...

    Socio-economic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in Spain: a nation-wide study using area-based deprivation 

    Background: Lung cancer is the main cause of cancer mortality worldwide and in Spain. Several previous studies have documented socio-economic inequalities in lung cancer mortality but these have focused on specific provinces or cities. The goal of this study was to describe lung cancer mortality in...

    Blood Selenium Concentrations Are Inversely Associated with the Risk of Undernutrition in Older Adults 

    Background: Selenium is an essential trace element with an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity that has been associated in experimental studies with beneficial effects on appetite control, the regulation of the gut microbiota, and control of the anabolic-catabolic balance. The main aim of th...

    A New Hierarchy of Research Evidence for Tumor Pathology: A Delphi Study to Define Levels of Evidence in Tumor Pathology 

    The hierarchy of evidence is a fundamental concept in evidence-based medicine, but existing models can be challenging to apply in laboratory-based health care disciplines, such as pathology, where the types of evidence and contexts are significantly different from interventional medicine. This proj...

    Contaminant Metals as Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association 

    Exposure to environmental pollutants is linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Beyond the extensive evidence for particulate air pollution, accumulating evidence supports that exposure to nonessential metals such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic is a significant contributor to cardiovascu...

    Cardiovascular risk of metabolically healthy obesity in two european populations: Prevention potential from a metabolomic study 

    Background: A new definition of metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) has recently been proposed to stratify the heterogeneous mortality risk of obesity. Metabolomic profiling provides clues to metabolic alterations beyond clinical definition. We aimed to evaluate the association between MHO and card...

    Blood DNA methylation and liver cancer in American Indians: evidence from the Strong Heart Study 

    Purpose: Liver cancer incidence among American Indians/Alaska Natives has risen over the past 20 years. Peripheral blood DNA methylation may be associated with liver cancer and could be used as a biomarker for cancer risk. We evaluated the association of blood DNA methylation with risk of liver can...

    Factors influencing influenza, pneumococcal and shingles vaccine uptake and refusal in older adults: a population-based cross-sectional study in England 

    Objectives: Uptake of influenza, pneumococcal and shingles vaccines in older adults vary across regions and socioeconomic backgrounds. In this study, we study the coverage and factors associated with vaccination uptake, as well as refusal in the unvaccinated population and their associations with e...

    Temporality of body mass index, blood tests, comorbidities and medication use as early markers for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC): a nested case-control study 

    Objective: Prior studies identified clinical factors associated with increased risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, little is known regarding their time-varying nature, which could inform earlier diagnosis. This study assessed temporality of body mass index (BMI), blood-based m...