La misión del Centro Nacional de Epidemiología es el estudio epidemiológico del binomio salud-enfermedad con el fin de mejorar el nivel de salud de la población mediante la vigilancia de la salud pública, el estudio de la conducta de las enfermedades (transmisibles y no transmisibles), la cuantificación de su impacto, la monitorización de su evolución y la investigación de los factores que comprometen la salud.

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Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) topsoil levels and incidence of childhood leukemias 

There are few well-established risk factors for childhood leukemias. While the frequency of childhood leukemias might be partially attributable to some diseases (accounting for a small fraction of cases) or ionizing radiation, the role of heavy metals has not been assessed. The objective of our stu...

Occupation, occupational exposures and mammographic density in Spanish women 

Introduction: Mammographic density (MD), the proportion of radiologically dense breast tissue, is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Our objective is to investigate the influence of occupations and occupational exposure to physical, chemical, and microbiological agents on MD in Spanish premeno...

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicide mortality in Spain: Differences by sex and age 

Background: Variations in suicide following the initial COVID-19 pandemic outbreak were heterogeneous across space, over time, and across population subgroup. Whether suicide has increased during the pandemic in Spain, a major initial COVID-19 hotspot, remains unclear, and no study has examined dif...

Lifting COVID-19 mitigation measures in Spain (May-June 2020) 

[EN] Introduction: The state of alarm was declared in Spain due to the COVID-19 epidemic on March 14, 2020, and established population confinement measures. The objective is to describe the process of lifting these mitigation measures. Methods: The Plan for the Transition to a New Normality, approv...

The imprinting effect of covid-19 vaccines: an expected selection bias in observational studies 

Recent observational studies have found a higher risk of reinfection with the omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 in people who received a third covid-19 booster dose. This finding has been interpreted as evidence of immune imprinting of covid-19 vaccines. This article proposes an alternative explanation...

The imprinting effect of COVID-19 vaccines: an expected selection bias in observational studies 

Recent observational studies have found a higher risk of reinfection with Omicron in people who received a third booster dose. This finding has been interpreted as evidence of immune imprinting of COVID-19 vaccines. We propose an alternative explanation: the increased risk of reinfection in individ...

Differences in preterm and low birth weight deliveries between spanish and immigrant women: influence of the prenatal care received 

Objectives: To compare the risk of preterm and low birth weight among newborns from native and immigrant women and to assess the role of prenatal care in the association between the ethnic origin of the women and their reproductive outcomes. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 21,708 women giving bir...

Recent trends of invasive mechanical ventilation in older adults: a nationwide population-based study 

Background: Critical care demand for older people is increasing. However, there is scarce population-based information about the use of life-support measures such as invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in this population segment. Objective: To examine the characteristics and recent trends of IMV ...

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of people with severe mental disorders hospitalized due to COVID-19: A nationwide population-based study 

Objetive: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients with severe mental illness (SMI) have worse outcomes than counterparts without SMI. Barriers in access to acute care medical procedures among SMI patients may partially explain this phenomenon. Here, we examined differences in critical care admission and in-...

Trends in suicide mortality in Spain, 2000-2019: Moderation by foreign-born status 

Background: Suicide rates in Spain remained stable during the early 21st century. Suicide rates among specific socially vulnerable groups, however, remain unknown, and there are no data on suicide mortality rates and trends among migrants living in Spain. Methods: We analyzed Spain's 2000-2019 suic...

Safety of balloon kyphoplasty in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures in Europe: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials 

Purpose: The study aims to evaluate the safety of balloon kyphoplasty in the treatment of painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures in Europe. Methods: Systematic review of the literature, until September 2013, and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials performed in Europe assessi...

Trends in infectious disease mortality rates, Spain, 1980-2011 

Using mortality data from National Institute of Statistics in Spain, we analyzed trends of infectious disease mortality rates in Spain during 1980-2011 to provide information on surveillance and control of infectious diseases. During the study period, 628,673 infectious disease-related deaths occur...

Characteristics, incidence and temporal trends of sepsis in elderly patients undergoing surgery 

Background: Despite increasing rates of surgery in the elderly, there is limited population-based information on sepsis in this age group. This study aimed to characterize the epidemiology and national trends of sepsis among elderly patients undergoing surgery in Spain. Methods: This population-bas...

Smoking during pregnancy: changes and associated risk factors in Spain, 1980-2016 

Background: Trends for maternal smoking rates have varied substantially across industrialized countries. The objective was to describe how the prevalence of maternal smoking evolved in Spain during 1980-2016. Methods: Data came from the Spanish Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations. Our s...

Association between general and central adiposity and development of hypertension in early childhood 

Objectives: To evaluate the association of general and abdominal obesity with high blood pressure in young children. Methods: A longitudinal study including 1796 participants from the Madrid region (Spain) with baseline at age 4 years and a follow-up 2 years later. Blood pressure, body mass index a...

Physical and social environmental factors related to co-occurrence of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors 

Previous work identifying determinants of co-occurrence of behavioral risk factors have focused on their association with individuals' characteristics with scant attention paid to their relationship to contextual factors. Data came from 21,007 individuals ≥15 years of age who participated in the cr...

Clustering of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, self-rated health and disability 

The main objective was to identify sociodemographic characteristics of the population at risk for a greater clustering of unhealthy behaviors and to evaluate the association of such clustering with self-rated health status and disability. Data come from the 2017 Spanish National Health Survey with ...

Would eligible gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men use PrEP? Awareness, knowledge, eligibility and intention to use PrEP among EMIS-2017 participants in Spain 

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an efficacious strategy for reducing the incidence of HIV infection. It has been available in Spain since 2019. We aim to report on awareness, knowledge of, intention to use, and eligibility for PrEP and related factors among participants in the European Men-Who-H...

Incidence and Severity of COVID-19 in HIV-Positive Persons Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy : A Cohort Study 

Background: The incidence and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among HIV-positive persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) have not been characterized in large populations. Objective: To describe the incidence and severity of COVID-19 by nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhi...

Loneliness, ageism and mental wellbeing in nursing homes during the COVID-19 pandemic 

Background: The measures imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially social distancing, had important effects on feelings of loneliness. The objective of this work is to assess the perception of loneliness in older adults living in nursing homes during the pandemic, how it has changed during t...