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dc.contributor.authorJiménez, Tamara
dc.contributor.authorPollan-Santamaria, Marina 
dc.contributor.authorDomínguez-Castillo, Alejandro 
dc.contributor.authorde Lucas, Maria Pilar 
dc.contributor.authorSierra, Maria Angeles 
dc.contributor.authorFernandez de Larrea-Baz, Nerea 
dc.contributor.authorGonzalez-Sanchez, Mario 
dc.contributor.authorSalas-Trejo, Dolores
dc.contributor.authorLlobet, Rafael
dc.contributor.authorMartínez, Inmaculada
dc.contributor.authorPino, Marina Nieves
dc.contributor.authorMartínez-Cortés, Mercedes
dc.contributor.authorPerez-Gomez, Beatriz 
dc.contributor.authorLope Carvajal, Virginia 
dc.contributor.authorGarcía-Pérez, Javier
dc.identifier.citationSci Total Environ. 2022 Jul 10;829:154578.es_ES
dc.description.abstractBackground: Mammographic density (MD), expressed as percentage of fibroglandular breast tissue, is an important risk factor for breast cancer. Our objective is to investigate the relationship between MD and residential proximity to pollutant industries in premenopausal Spanish women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 1225 women extracted from the DDM-Madrid study. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the association of MD percentage (and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs)) and proximity (between 1 km and 3 km) to industries included in the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register. Results: Although no association was found between MD and distance to all industries as a whole, several industrial sectors showed significant association for some distances: "surface treatment of metals and plastic" (β = 4.98, 95%CI = (0.85; 9.12) at ≤1.5 km, and β = 3.00, 95%CI = (0.26; 5.73) at ≤2.5 km), "organic chemical industry" (β = 6.73, 95%CI = (0.50; 12.97) at ≤1.5 km), "pharmaceutical products" (β = 4.14, 95%CI = (0.58; 7.70) at ≤2 km; β = 3.55, 95%CI = (0.49; 6.60) at ≤2.5 km; and β = 3.11, 95%CI = (0.20; 6.01) at ≤3 km), and "urban waste-water treatment plants" (β = 8.06, 95%CI = (0.82; 15.30) at ≤1 km; β = 5.28; 95%CI = (0.49; 10.06) at ≤1.5 km; β = 4.30, 95%CI = (0.03; 8.57) at ≤2 km; β = 5.26, 95%CI = (1.83; 8.68) at ≤2.5 km; and β = 3.19, 95%CI = (0.46; 5.92) at ≤3 km). Moreover, significant increased MD was observed in women close to industries releasing specific pollutants: ammonia (β = 4.55, 95%CI = (0.26; 8.83) at ≤1.5 km; and β = 3.81, 95%CI = (0.49; 7.14) at ≤2 km), dichloromethane (β = 3.86, 95%CI = (0.00; 7.71) at ≤2 km), ethylbenzene (β = 8.96, 95%CI = (0.57; 17.35) at ≤3 km), and phenols (β = 2.60, 95%CI = (0.21; 5.00) at ≤2.5 km). Conclusions: Our results suggest no statistically significant relationship between MD and proximity to industries as a whole, although we detected associations with various industrial sectors and some specific pollutants, which suggests that MD could have a mediating role in breast carcinogenesis.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipWe would like to thank the participants in the DDM-Madrid study for their contribution to breast cancer research. This work was supported by the Carlos III Institute of Health (AESI PI15CIII/0029, AESI PI15CIII/00013, and EPY-505/19-PFIS). The article presents independent research. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Carlos III Institute of Health.es_ES
dc.publisherElsevier es_ES
dc.subjectBreast canceres_ES
dc.subjectBreast densityes_ES
dc.subjectResidential proximityes_ES
dc.subject.meshBreast Neoplasms es_ES
dc.subject.meshEnvironmental Pollutants es_ES
dc.subject.meshBreast Density es_ES
dc.subject.meshCase-Control Studies es_ES
dc.subject.meshCross-Sectional Studies es_ES
dc.subject.meshEnvironmental Pollution es_ES
dc.subject.meshFemale es_ES
dc.subject.meshHumans es_ES
dc.subject.meshRisk Factors es_ES
dc.titleResidential proximity to industrial pollution and mammographic densityes_ES
dc.rights.licenseAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internacional
dc.contributor.funderInstituto de Salud Carlos III es_ES
dc.identifier.journalThe Science of the total environmentes_ES
dc.repisalud.centroISCIII::Centro Nacional de Epidemiologíaes_ES
dc.rights.accessRightsopen accesses_ES
dc.rights.accessRightsopen access

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internacional
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