Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/16077
Epidemiology of bacterial co-infections and risk factors in COVID-19-hospitalized patients in Spain: a nationwide study
Eur J Public Health. 2023 Aug 1;33(4):675-681.
Background: We performed a nationwide population-based retrospective study to describe the epidemiology of bacterial co-infections in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-hospitalized patients in Spain in 2020. We also analyzed the risk factors for co-infection, the etiology and the impact in the outcome. Methods: Data were obtained from records in the Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS) of the National Surveillance System for Hospital Data in Spain, provided by the Ministry of Health and annually published with 2 years lag. COVID-19 circulated in two waves in 2020: from its introduction to 31st June and from 1st July to 31st December. The risk of developing a healthcare-associated bacterial co-infection and the risk for in-hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality in co-infected patients was assessed using an adjusted logistic regression model. Results: The incidence of bacterial co-infection in COVID-19 hospitalized patients was 2.3%. The main risk factors associated with bacterial co-infection were organ failure, obesity and male sex. Co-infection was associated with worse outcomes including higher in-hospital, in-ICU mortality and higher length of stay. Gram-negative bacteria caused most infections. Causative agents were similar between waves, although higher co-infections with Pseudomonas spp. were detected in the first wave and with Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the second. Conclusions: Co-infections are not as common as those found in other viral respiratory infections; therefore, antibiotics should be used carefully. Screening for actual co-infection to prescribe antibiotic therapy when required should be performed.
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