Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/16003
Two distinct lipid transporters together regulate invasive filamentous growth in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans
PLoS Genet. 2022 Dec 14;18(12):e1010549.
Flippases transport lipids across the membrane bilayer to generate and maintain asymmetry. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans has 5 flippases, including Drs2, which is critical for filamentous growth and phosphatidylserine (PS) distribution. Furthermore, a drs2 deletion mutant is hypersensitive to the antifungal drug fluconazole and copper ions. We show here that such a flippase mutant also has an altered distribution of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] and ergosterol. Analyses of additional lipid transporters, i.e. the flippases Dnf1-3, and all the oxysterol binding protein (Osh) family lipid transfer proteins, i.e. Osh2-4 and Osh7, indicate that they are not critical for filamentous growth. However, deletion of Osh4 alone, which exchanges PI(4)P for sterol, in a drs2 mutant can bypass the requirement for this flippase in invasive filamentous growth. In addition, deletion of the lipid phosphatase Sac1, which dephosphorylates PI(4)P, in a drs2 mutant results in a synthetic growth defect, suggesting that Drs2 and Sac1 function in parallel pathways. Together, our results indicate that a balance between the activities of two putative lipid transporters regulates invasive filamentous growth, via PI(4)P. In contrast, deletion of OSH4 in drs2 does not restore growth on fluconazole, nor on papuamide A, a toxin that binds PS in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, suggesting that Drs2 has additional role(s) in plasma membrane organization, independent of Osh4. As we show that C. albicans Drs2 localizes to different structures, including the Spitzenkörper, we investigated if a specific localization of Drs2 is critical for different functions, using a synthetic physical interaction approach to restrict/stabilize Drs2 at the Spitzenkörper. Our results suggest that the localization of Drs2 at the plasma membrane is critical for C. albicans growth on fluconazole and papuamide A, but not for invasive filamentous growth.
Candida albicans | Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins | Humans | Adenosine Triphosphatases | Saccharomyces cerevisiae | Fluconazole | Membrane Transport Proteins | Fungal Proteins
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