Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/15540
Effectiveness of a Second Dose of an mRNA Vaccine Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron Infection in Individuals Previously Infected by Other Variants
Monge, Susana | Rojas-Benedicto, Ayelén ISCIII | Olmedo, Carmen | Martín-Merino, Elisa | Mazagatos, Clara ISCIII | Limia, Aurora | Sierra, María José | Larrauri, Amparo ISCIII | Hernán, Miguel A | IBERCovid
Clin Infect Dis. 2023 Feb 8;76(3):e367-e374.
Background: Single-dose vaccination was widely recommended in the pre-Omicron era for persons with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. The effectiveness of a second vaccine dose in this group in the Omicron era is unknown. Methods: We linked nationwide population registries in Spain to identify community-dwelling individuals aged 18-64, with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test before single-dose mRNA vaccination (mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2). Every day between 3 January and 6 February 2022 we matched 1:1 individuals receiving a second mRNA vaccine dose and controls on sex, age, province, first dose type and time, month of primary infection, and number of previous tests. We then estimated Kaplan-Meier risks of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 reinfection. We performed a similar analysis in a Delta-dominant period, between 19 July and 30 November 2021. Results: In the Omicron period, estimated effectiveness (95% CI) of a second dose was 62.2% (58.2-66.4%) 7-34 days after administration, similar across groups defined by age, sex, type of first vaccine, and time since the first dose. Estimated effectiveness was 65.4% (61.1-69.9%) for mRNA-1273 and 52.0% (41.8-63.1%) for BNT162b2. Estimated effectiveness was 78.5% (67.4-89.9%), 66.1% (54.9-77.5%), and 60.2% (55.5-64.8%) when primary infection had occurred in the Delta, Alpha, and pre-Alpha periods, respectively. In the Delta period, the estimated effectiveness of a second dose was 8.8% (-55.3% to 81.1%). Conclusions: Our results suggest that, over 1 month after administration, a second dose of mRNA vaccine increases protection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection with the Omicron variant among individuals with single-dose vaccination and previously infected with another variant.
COVID-19 | SARS-CoV-2 | Omicron | Vaccines | Effectiveness
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