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dc.contributor.authorAyuso-Alvarez, Ana Maria 
dc.contributor.authorSimon Mendez, Lorena 
dc.contributor.authorNuñez, Olivier 
dc.contributor.authorRodriguez-Blazquez, Carmen 
dc.contributor.authorMartín-Méndez, I
dc.contributor.authorBel-Lán, A
dc.contributor.authorLopez-Abente, Gonzalo 
dc.contributor.authorMerlo, J
dc.contributor.authorFernandez-Navarro, Pablo L 
dc.contributor.authorGalan, Iñaki
dc.identifier.citationEnviron Res. 2019 Dec;179(Pt A):108784.es_ES
dc.description.abstractBackground and objectives: Despite the biological plausibility of the association between heavy metal exposure and mental health disorders, epidemiological evidence remains scarce. The objective was to estimate the association between heavy metals and metalloids in soil and the prevalence of mental disorders in the adult population of Spain. Methods: Individual data came from the Spanish National Health Survey 2011-2012, 18,073 individuals residing in 1772 census sections. Mental health was measured with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The concentration estimates of heavy metal and metalloid levels in topsoil (upper soil horizon) came from the Geochemical Atlas of Spain based on 13,317 soil samples. Levels of lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and manganese (Mn) were estimated in each census section by "ordinary Kriging". Odds ratios (OR) were calculated by multilevel logistic regression models. Results: Compared with the lowest Pb concentration levels quartile, the OR for the second quartile was 1.29 (95%CI: 1.11-1.50), increasing progressively to 1.37 (95%CI: 1.17-1.60) and 1.51 (95%CI: 1.27-1.79) in the third and fourth quartiles, respectively. For As, the association was observed in the third and fourth quartiles: 1.21 (95%CI: 1.04-1.41) and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.21-1.65), respectively. Cd was associated also following a gradient from the second quartile: 1.34 (95%CI: 1.15-1.57) through the fourth: 1.84 (95%CI: 1.56-2.15). In contrast, Mn only showed a positive association at the second quartile. Additionally, individuals consuming vegetables > once a day the OR for the fourth quartile of Pb concentration, vs. the first, increased to 2.93 (95%CI: 1.97-4.36); similarly for As: 3.00 (95%CI: 2.08-4.31), and for Cd: 3.49 (95%CI: 2.33-5.22). Conclusions: Living in areas with a higher concentration of heavy metals and metalloids in soil was associated with an increased probability of having a mental disorder. These relationships were strengthened in individuals reporting consuming vegetables > once a day.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by the Institute of Health Carlos III, Ministry of Science Innovation and Universities [grant number PI15CIII/00034, PI14CIII/00065 and PI17CIII/00040]. This article presents independent research. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Carlos III Institute of Health.es_ES
dc.publisherElsevier es_ES
dc.subjectHeavy metalses_ES
dc.subjectMental healthes_ES
dc.subjectMultilevel analyseses_ES
dc.subject.meshMetals, Heavy es_ES
dc.subject.meshSoil Pollutants es_ES
dc.subject.meshAdult es_ES
dc.subject.meshCadmium es_ES
dc.subject.meshEnvironmental Exposure es_ES
dc.subject.meshEnvironmental Monitoring es_ES
dc.subject.meshHumans es_ES
dc.subject.meshMental Disorders es_ES
dc.subject.meshMental Health es_ES
dc.subject.meshMetalloids es_ES
dc.subject.meshSpain es_ES
dc.titleAssociation between heavy metals and metalloids in topsoil and mental health in the adult population of Spaines_ES
dc.typejournal articlees_ES
dc.rights.licenseAtribución 4.0 Internacional*
dc.contributor.funderInstituto de Salud Carlos III es_ES
dc.identifier.journalEnvironmental researches_ES
dc.repisalud.centroISCIII::Centro Nacional de Epidemiologíaes_ES
dc.rights.accessRightsopen accesses_ES
dc.relation.projectFISinfo:fis/Instituto de Salud Carlos III/null/null/Subprograma de proyectos de investigacion en salud (AES 2015). Modalidad proyectos en salud. (2015)/PI15/00034es_ES
dc.relation.projectFISinfo:fis/Instituto de Salud Carlos III/null/null/ISCIII Subprograma de proyectos de investigacion en salud . Modalidad proyectos en salud. (2014)/PI14CIII/00065es_ES
dc.relation.projectFISinfo:fis/Instituto de Salud Carlos III/Programa Estatal de Fomento de la Investigación Científica y Técnica de Excelencia/Subprograma Estatal de Generación de Conocimiento/PI17-ISCIII Modalidad Proyectos de Investigacion en Salud Intramurales. (2017)/PI17CIII/00040es_ES

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