Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12105/14418
The Combination of Iron and Copper Increases Pathogenicity and Induces Proteins Related to the Main Virulence Factors in Clinical Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii
J Fungi (Basel). 2022 Jan 6;8(1):57.
In fungi, metals are associated with the expression of virulence factors. However, it is unclear whether the uptake of metals affects their pathogenicity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of iron/copper in modulating pathogenicity and proteomic response in two clinical isolates of C. neoformans with high and low pathogenicity. Methods: In both isolates, the effect of 50 µM iron and 500 µM copper on pathogenicity, capsule induction, and melanin production was evaluated. We then performed a quantitative proteomic analysis of cytoplasmic extracts exposed to that combination. Finally, the effect on pathogenicity by iron and copper was evaluated in eight additional isolates. Results: In both isolates, the combination of iron and copper increased pathogenicity, capsule size, and melanin production. Regarding proteomic data, proteins with increased levels after iron and copper exposure were related to biological processes such as cell stress, vesicular traffic (Ap1, Vps35), cell wall structure (Och1, Ccr4, Gsk3), melanin biosynthesis (Hem15, Mln2), DNA repair (Chk1), protein transport (Mms2), SUMOylation (Uba2), and mitochondrial transport (Atm1). Increased pathogenicity by exposure to metal combination was also confirmed in 90% of the eight isolates. Conclusions: The combination of these metals enhances pathogenicity and increases the abundance of proteins related to the main virulence factors.
Cryptococcus neoformans | Copper | Iron | Metals | Pathogenicity | Proteins | Virulence
Files in this item
- CombinationIronCopperIncreases ...
- Artículo principal