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dc.contributor.authorNübler, Stefanie
dc.contributor.authorEsteban-Lopez, Marta 
dc.contributor.authorCastaño, Argelia 
dc.contributor.authorMol, Hans
dc.contributor.authorSchäfer, Moritz
dc.contributor.authorHaji-Abbas-Zarrabi, Karin
dc.contributor.authorBury, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorKoch, Holger M
dc.contributor.authorVaccher, Vincent
dc.contributor.authorAntignac, Jean-Philippe
dc.contributor.authorDvorakova, Darina
dc.contributor.authorHajslova, Jana
dc.contributor.authorThomsen, Cathrine
dc.contributor.authorVorkamp, Katrin
dc.contributor.authorGöen, Thomas
dc.identifier.citationInt J Hyg Environ Health . 2021 Mar 10;234:113711.es_ES
dc.description.abstractHuman biomonitoring (HBM) of cadmium is essential to assess and prevent toxic exposure. Generally, low cadmium levels in urine and blood of the general population place particularly high demands on quality assurance and control measures (QA/QC) for cadmium determination. One of the aims of the HBM4EU project is to harmonize and advance HBM in Europe. Cadmium is one of the chemicals selected as a priority substance for HBM implementation in the 30 European countries under HBM4EU. For this purpose, analytical comparability and accuracy of the analytical laboratories of participating countries was investigated in a QA/QC programme comprising interlaboratory comparison investigations (ICI) and external quality assurance schemes (EQUAS). This paper presents the evaluation process and discusses the results of four ICI/EQUAS rounds for the determination of cadmium in urine and blood. The majority of the 43 participating laboratories achieved satisfactory results, although low limits of quantification were required to quantify Cd concentrations at general population exposure levels. The relative standard deviation of the participants' results obtained from all ICI and EQUAS runs ranged from 8 to 36% for cadmium in urine and 8-28% for cadmium in blood. Applying inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), using an internal standard, and eliminating molybdenum oxide interferences was favourable for the accurate determination of cadmium in urine and blood. Furthermore, the analysis of cadmium in urine was found to have a critical point at approximately 0.05 μg/l, below which variability increased and laboratory proficiency decreased. This QA/QC programme succeeded in establishing a network of laboratories with high analytical comparability and accuracy for the analysis of cadmium across 20 European countries.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipWe gratefully acknowledge funding by the European Uninon's Horizon 2020 (Grant no. 733032). The authors would like to thank the HBM4EU Secretariat at the German Environment Agency for administrative support. The authors would like to express their special thanks to IDEA Consultants, Inc. (Japan), Division of Environmental Health Sciences at Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, (USA), Occupational and Environmental Medicine at Laboratory Medicine, Lund (Sweden), Department of Environmental Sciences at Jožef Stefan Institute (Slovenia), Metals Laboratory – Biomarkers Unit at National Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Health Carlos III (Spain) and the laboratory team at IPASUM (Germany) for their significant support as expert laboratories. The authors acknowledge all the participating laboratories that made the HBM4EU QA/QC programme possible as well as the Management and Advisory Boards of HBM4EU.es_ES
dc.subjectAtomic absorption spectrometry (AAS)es_ES
dc.subjectExternal quality assurance scheme (EQUAS)es_ES
dc.subjectCadmium Human biomonitoring (HBM)es_ES
dc.subjectInterlaboratory comparison investigation (ICI)es_ES
dc.titleInterlaboratory comparison investigations (ICI) and external quality assurance schemes (EQUAS) for cadmium in urine and blood: Results from the HBM4EU project.es_ES
dc.typejournal articlees_ES
dc.rights.licenseAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internacional*
dc.contributor.funderUnión Europea. Comisión Europea. H2020 es_ES
dc.identifier.journalInternational journal of hygiene and environmental healthes_ES
dc.rights.accessRightsopen accesses_ES

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internacional
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