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dc.contributor.authorSantamaría, Ricardo
dc.contributor.authorGonzález-Álvarez, María
dc.contributor.authorDelgado, Raquel
dc.contributor.authorEsteban, Sergio 
dc.contributor.authorArroyo, Alicia G
dc.identifier.citationFront Physiol. 2020; 11:586852es_ES
dc.description.abstractThe vasculature ensures optimal delivery of nutrients and oxygen throughout the body, and to achieve this function it must continually adapt to varying tissue demands. Newly formed vascular plexuses during development are immature and require dynamic remodeling to generate well-patterned functional networks. This is achieved by remodeling of the capillaries preserving those which are functional and eliminating other ones. A balanced and dynamically regulated capillary remodeling will therefore ensure optimal distribution of blood and nutrients to the tissues. This is particularly important in pathological contexts in which deficient or excessive vascular remodeling may worsen tissue perfusion and hamper tissue repair. Blood flow is a major determinant of microvascular reshaping since capillaries are pruned when relatively less perfused and they split when exposed to high flow in order to shape the microvascular network for optimal tissue perfusion and oxygenation. The molecular machinery underlying blood flow sensing by endothelial cells is being deciphered, but much less is known about how this translates into endothelial cell responses as alignment, polarization and directed migration to drive capillary remodeling, particularly in vivo. Part of this knowledge is theoretical from computational models since blood flow hemodynamics are not easily recapitulated by in vitro or ex vivo approaches. Moreover, these events are difficult to visualize in vivo due to their infrequency and briefness. Studies had been limited to postnatal mouse retina and vascular beds in zebrafish but new tools as advanced microscopy and image analysis are strengthening our understanding of capillary remodeling. In this review we introduce the concept of remodeling of the microvasculature and its relevance in physiology and pathology. We summarize the current knowledge on the mechanisms contributing to capillary regression and to capillary splitting highlighting the key role of blood flow to orchestrate these processes. Finally, we comment the potential and possibilities that microfluidics offers to this field. Since capillary remodeling mechanisms are often reactivated in prevalent pathologies as cancer and cardiovascular disease, all this knowledge could be eventually used to improve the functionality of capillary networks in diseased tissues and promote their repair.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThe work in this manuscript has been funded by a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (SAF2017-83229-R to AGA) and a fellowship from the FPI-Severo Ochoa program (to RS). The CNIC is supported by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCIN) and the Pro CNIC Foundation, and was a Severo Ochoa Center of Excellence (SEV-2015-0505). We acknowledge support of the publication fee by the CSIC Open Access Publication Support Initiative through its Unit of Information Resources for Research (URICI).es_ES
dc.publisherFrontiers Media es_ES
dc.titleRemodeling of the Microvasculature: May the Blood Flow Be With You.es_ES
dc.typejournal articlees_ES
dc.rights.licenseAtribución 4.0 Internacional*
dc.contributor.funderMinisterio de Ciencia e Innovación (España) 
dc.contributor.funderFundación ProCNIC 
dc.contributor.funderInstituto de Salud Carlos III 
dc.identifier.journalFrontiers in physiologyes_ES
dc.repisalud.orgCNICCNIC::Grupos de investigación::Metaloproteinasas de Matriz en Angiogénesis e Inflamaciónes_ES
dc.rights.accessRightsopen accesses_ES

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Atribución 4.0 Internacional
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